The powertrain combines a 48V system with a diesel engine. The first mild hybrid diesel will be the Kia Sportage compact SUV, and then in 2019, in the Kia cee’d.
The 48V system of the Kia mild hybrid powertrain consists of a belt-integrated starter generator, a DC/DC converter for connecting the 48 and 12V systems, and a lithium-ion battery. This has a capacity of 0.46 kWh. Kia state that, in the new WLTP (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure), the 48V system emits up to 4% less CO2.
48V Hybrid (Source: Kia)
The starter generator can produce up to 10kW of power, and provides additional torque during acceleration, taking some of the load off the diesel engine. In regeneration mode, energy is saved while braking, driving downhill and coasting. Kia is able to combine the mild hybrid system with both manual and automatic gearboxes, and with front, rear and all-wheel drive. In future, Kia state that 48V systemswill also be available with petrol engines.
YASA P400 series electric motors and generators are small and light, capable of delivering up to 370 N·m of torque and 160 kW of power from an axial length of 80.4 mm.
Motor developments for electric vehicles (EVs) often are shaded by the emphasis placed on battery capability. But the enduring need to deliver improved packaging, power, torque and range from EVs brings significant opportunity for new approaches to motor design and production.
BorgWarner has announced that it will supply its high-voltage positive temperature coefficient (PTC) cabin heating technology for an unspecified new EV model from a global automaker.
BorgWarner’s technology is designed to provide rapid cabin heating while making the most efficient possible use of energy in order to conserve battery power.
Unlike legacy vehicles, EVs don’t generate a significant source of waste heat that can be used to heat the cabin. BorgWarner’s high-voltage cabin heater relies on ceramic PTC components to warm the air stream coming from the blower. It self-regulates to ensure that high-power heating is available in cold temperatures, when it is needed most. As temperatures rise and heating demand decreases, the energy level is automatically reduced.
The heater offers up to 7 kW of power, provides dual-zone functionality for increased efficiency, and boasts nearly silent operation.
Bosch’s new 48-volt battery for hybrids is in demand by automakers across the globe. Similar to the Bosch e-axle, this innovative 48-volt battery is standardized for easy integration into new vehicle models. Established manufacturers and start-ups alike can thus eliminate long and expensive development processes. “Bosch is an incubator of electromobility. We help manufacturers reduce their development times and launch their products faster,” says Dr. Rolf Bulander, chairman of the Bosch Mobility Solutions business sector and member of the board of management of Robert Bosch GmbH. This means that installation of the lithium-ion battery will benefit not only compact cars, but mini- and microcars as well. Production of the battery is scheduled to start in late 2018. Anticipating a large market for entry-level hybrids, Bosch offers other powertrain components for these models in addition to the 48-volt battery. The company estimates that some 15 million 48-volt hybrid vehicles will be on the road by 2025.
Automakers everywhere – whether in China, Europe, or North America – are all striving to cut CO2 emissions, which in practice means reducing cars’ fuel consumption. Bosch has systematically designed its new 48-volt battery to do precisely that. For instance, the lithium-ion cells Bosch uses are as compact as possible while still achieving a reduction in CO2. The 48-volt battery is in high demand, particularly among Chinese manufacturers, and the lithium-ion unit is poised to become a global success. Bosch is already in talks with over a dozen customers and has secured a considerable number of production projects.
The secret of the battery’s success is its sophisticated concept, which offers a comparatively inexpensive way to help reduce vehicle CO2 emissions. This is also due to the product design, as the battery requires no active cooling and its housing is made of plastic, not metal. Both these factors bring costs down still further. The plastic housing presents a real challenge, as lithium-ion cells expand when the battery is charging and over the course of the unit’s service life. As a result, the housing must withstand a certain amount of stress. Bosch engineers rearranged the cells in the 48-volt battery so that even plastic housing can bear the pressure.
With its new battery, Bosch is playing a key role in making the 48-volt hybrid affordable for the mass market.
It’s long been an inspiring futuristic concept: electric cars that can recharge continuously at speed, driving along roadways with built-in inductive charging.
Think a modern-day version of slot cars, but at 1:1 scale.
Now French automaker Renault has demonstrated a prototype of just such a system, briefly recharging one of its electric cars at 60 miles per hour.
The French automaker that builds more electric cars than any other European maker partnered with electronics company Qualcomm to develop what it calls a “dynamic wireless electric-vehicle charging” system.
The prototype demonstrated last week allowed charging at up to 20 kilowatts at speeds up to 100 km/h (62 mph) and higher.
The demonstration cars were a pair of Renault Kangoo ZE electric small delivery vans, shown on a test track in Versailles, near Paris.
Qualcomm and a French firm, Vedecom, installed the charging equipment in the test track.
Renault, meanwhile, modified its electric vans with the system that permitted wireless charging.
The goal of the tests, the companies said, is to assess the “operation and efficiency of energy transfer to the vehicles for a wide range of practical scenarios.”
Among the communications between vehicle and track are those that identify the vehicle and authorize it to begin charging, negotiate over the level of power to be provided, and keep the vehicle aligned on the charging strip at an appropriate speed.
The test is part of a 9-million-euro project known as Fabric, partly funded by the European Union, to evaluate the technology feasibility, business models, and sustainability of wireless on-road charging.
Fabric began in January 2014, and will continue through the end of this year; it’s made up of 25 partners from nine European countries.
A license to practice in general in the automotive service and repair industry is essential in my opinion. However, we are more likely to have success with this in connection with Electric Vehicles (includes all hybrids and variants). I fully support the IMI and the work they are doing to achieve this:
The following is a brief from the Institute of the Motor Industry.
Making the most of electric vehicles – Infrastructure, skills, and safety.
The previous Secretary of State said, ‘The UK is a world leader in the uptake of low emission vehicles and our long term economic plan is investing £600 million by 2020 to improve air quality, create jobs and achieve our goal of every new car and van in the UK being ultra–low emission by 2040.’
The Society of Motor Manufactures and Traders (SMMT) and KPMG have forecast that the overall economic and social benefit of electric, connected and autonomous vehicles could be in the region of £51billion per year. The estimates indicate 320,000 additional jobs, and the potential to reduce serious roadside accidents by 25,000 casualties per year, which would save the NHS £24m by 2030.
The elimination of 40,000 deaths and 100,000s of respiratory illnesses caused by air pollution from diesel and petrol motor engines will increase this saving significantly.
The IMI believes that to achieve the Governments aims and reap the predicted economic and environmental benefits there is a need for a holistic approach. Government must address all the infrastructure issues.
The main focus of the VTAB is charging infrastructure
The IMI agrees that UK needs to have consistent and sustainable EV charging facilities across the country. There are currently 11,840 charge points across the UK. These are segmented into three categories slow charge (6 to 8 hours), fast charge (3 to 4 hours), and rapid charge (30 to 60 minutes). In addition, Professor Jim Saker of the University of Loughborough points out that the New Automotive Industry Growth Team project have indicated there are only two ways forward as regards to the future power train of vehicles; and that is Electric Vehicles and (Hydrogen) Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV). Currently however there are only 7 hydrogen filling stations in the UK. Professor Saker suggests that thousands more are needed to entice the public to make the switch to FCEVs en masse.
Issues the Bill does not address
Skills gap and competition issues
A problem will come from the skills gap facing the industry. A recent study conducted on behalf of the IMI showed that 81% of independent garages found it difficult to recruit technicians with the skills and competences to undertake work on technologically advanced vehicles, such as hybrid and electric cars. Out of 183,869 vehicle technicians in the UK only 2,000 are qualified on EVs and these are all employed in manufactures dealerships.
The lack of competition will exasperate the issue of the skills gap that would be taking place in the market. Manufacturers will train technicians and provide them with the equipment to repair EV and FCEV; this will lead to a group of skilled technicians who can repair the modern vehicles and a large percentage of technicians who have only been trained on the old technology.
This will mean that the market will fail to open up because of high repair and insurance costs. ULEV insurance costs are up 50% more expensive than petrol and diesel because of the skills shortage.
Government Investment in training
With major problems over recruitment and large skills shortages within the sector it is clear that unless a proactive strategy is undertaken the UK will not be able to support the growth of low carbon emission vehicles. The IMI has called for a modest investment of £30 million to assist the independent sector to train the required number of people.
Additional focus for the VTAB
Safety a risk to life and the reputation of the technology
The battery pack on a plug-in hybrid/electric vehicle carries up to 600v direct current. Manufacturers have taken the necessary precautions to ensure that the vehicles are safe in their day-to-day use. However, the risk of untrained vehicle technicians attempting to repair hybrid vehicles in particular is high as many of the components (other than the electric motor) are similar to that of standard combustion engines. Any technician making these assumptions puts their lives and the lives of others at risk.
To put this into perspective a UK household runs on 240v alternating current. In order legally conduct any electrical work on the premises the electrician has to be licenced under the NiCEIC BS 7671 scheme. Yet, no such licensing exists for electrically powered vehicles. Without an equivalent licence how could an automotive technician work on a faulty charging point or vehicle at the home of the vehicle owner?
Licence to practise
The Government should make it illegal for unqualified technicians to work on EV and FCEV cars from 2017.
The Government should mandate the IMI, along with the Health and Safety Executive to maintain the register of licenced technicians
Questions for the Minister
1. It is clear that the introduction of alternative fuel cars has the potential to reduce emissions and save lives (9,500 deaths in London associated with pollution, Kings College London study , 2015), as will the introduction of autonomous vehicles (25,000 according to KPMG). However, does the minister agree that introducing these advanced technological systems without the necessary legislation or licensing in place to ensure those that are working on these vehicles can repair the vehicles safely could cause avoidable injuries and fatalities?
2. Is the Minister aware that sales of electric vehicles have risen by 31% in the last year, but out of 183,869 technicians working on cars in the UK only 2,000 are currently qualified to work on the high voltage systems of electric vehicles, all of whom work solely in manufacturers’ dealerships?
3. If he does know can he say what plans the government has got to ensure the necessary skills are developed in the wider service & repair sector to maintain Electric and Hybrid vehicles safely and at a reasonable cost for consumers in the future?
4. Is the minister aware that insurance premiums for electric vehicles are up to 30% higher than for equivalent petrol or diesel models, and that Thatcham Research Ltd says this is due to the cost of repairs, the complexity of the cars, and there being fewer appropriate repairers driving competition?
5. Is the Minister aware of the very stark difference in the technology in electric vehicles compared to petrol powered cars, effectively the dawn of a second era in automotive technology, and the potential danger to an unqualified individual attempting to repair a machine that contains up to 600DC volts, which is potentially lethal?
6. Will the Minister meet with representatives from the Institute of the Motor Industry, the industry’s Professional Body, who are working closely with manufactures like BMW and Mitsubishi, to hear their case for a licence for professional technicians working on EVs, to protect the workers and to encourage businesses to invest in building the skills base required to support the exponential growth of electric and hybrid vehicles expected in the coming years?
7. Has the Minister calculated the potential savings for the NHS from the switch by drivers to ULEVs from diesel and petrol cars, and have these been factored into the investment decisions outlined in the VTAB?
Electrified powertrains, specifically Battery Electric and Plug-In Electric (BEV/ PHEV) vehicles are projected internationally to become more prevalent in production due to environmental factors (such as CO2 emissions), regulations (such as the Greenhouse Gas and the California ZEV Mandate) and the increasing price of fossil fuels. The main benefits of electrified powertrains are eliminating or significantly reducing local emissions while increasing the overall well-to-wheels efficiency.
Standardized Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) through wireless charging allows the BEV/ PHEV customer an automated and more convenient and alternative to plug-in (conductive) charging. Essentially the customer simply needs to park into a SAE J2954 compatible parking space (e.g., residential garage or parking structure) in order to charge the vehicle.
Bosch solutions make electrification technology accessible and offer powertrain choices for OEMS
Making its global debut at NAIAS, Bosch’s electric axle drive system (eAxle) makes electrification accessible for automakers through a scalable, modular platform that can bring 5-10 percent cost efficiency as compared to stand-alone components. The eAxle is flexible for multiple platforms and brings together top-of-the-line Bosch powertrain components into one system.
The Thermal Management Station will show how Bosch technology efficiently manages heat flows in electric vehicles and extends range by up to 25 percent, especially in winter driving conditions. The holistic thermal management approach for electric vehicles makes heating in the winter and cooling in the summer cost effective and energy efficient.
Advancements in the electrified powertrain are not limited to battery-powered vehicles. Bosch continues to drive innovation in the internal combustion engine. Direct injection (DI) makes up nearly 50 percent of today’s internal combustion engine market, and its share continues to grow as it enters its third generation of system technology. This new generation can provide significant improvements in efficiency, as well as reduced particulate and gaseous emissions, and improved acoustic performance to decrease overall noise.
Electrification enhanced by collaboration with automated and connected technologies
In addition to powertrain technologies, Bosch will also feature automated and connected technologies including the global debut of a key requirement on the path to fully automated driving. The Electric Power Steering (EPS) system with fail-operational function is a highly redundant feature that enables either a driver or auto pilot system to independently return to a minimal risk condition while maintaining about 50 percent electric steering support in the rare case of a single failure. This technology will enable OEMs to comply with the fall back strategies as proposed in the Federal Automated Vehicles Policy documents from the U.S. Department of Transportation and National Traffic Highway Safety Association.