Death by EV

Some automotive technicians are going to be killed by the high voltages on electric vehicles. I have written many textbooks about automotive technology where I have highlighted safe working practices, but the one I have just completed the script for will save lives. This book is called, ‘Electric and Hybrid Vehicles’, and will be out early in 2016. By the way, we use the term EV to cover all the different types there are such as hybrids and pure-EVs.

Did you know the voltages on some EVs can be several hundred volts, which is almost three time the mains voltage in our houses? The majority of EV batteries are well over 300 volts. If the human body experiences a current of just fifty thousandths of an ampere (50mA, which is not very much) for over two seconds it can be fatal.

Now that I have scared you away from ever touching high voltage components (which are all labelled and usually coloured orange) I would add that working on EVs is perfectly safe! You just need to be trained and know what you are doing. Driving an EV is also perfectly safe and don’t expect poor performance either. My EV will do well over 80 miles per hour (on a private track!) just using the battery and electric motor.

Of course as well as saving lives, the book is packed with really interesting information and technology relating to EVs. For example, whether it is safe to plug in the charging lead in the rain. How most motors on EVs are AC motors but we call them DC motors! The book even covers things like what ‘first responders’ should do if a lithium-ion battery is burning after an accident. The book covers all the requirements for the Institute of the Motor Industry (IMI) awards and accreditations for those who need a qualification. Look out for the amazing eLearning that will also be available soon to support the book.

I have also included a short case study on charging my own EV (actually a PHEV) from solar panels. This may or may not save the planet but in the meantime it does save me money as I can now do a large proportion of my motoring for about 1p a mile.

Here are three more interesting facts to finish on:

A formula-e (fully electric racing car) will accelerate from 0 to 100 kilometres per hour in under 3 seconds

  • The Tesla Model S (a fully electric car) has a range of up to 330 miles
  • In the year 1900, electrically powered cars were the best-selling road vehicles in the USA

Now back to the final proof read of the script!

Direct injection for CNG engines


Direct injection is not only something for diesel and gasoline engines. In compressed natural gas (CNG) engines, it could also make cars even more economical and eco-friendly. Driving enjoyment would also be boosted: compared with present systems that use manifold gas injection, it could deliver as much as 60 percent more torque at low rpm, and offer the prospect of an even more dynamic driving experience in the CNG cars of the future. However, there is still no technology for directly injecting natural gas into the combustion chamber. In the Direct4Gas project, researchers now want to develop a direct injection system for monovalent engines, or engines that run exclusively on CNG.

Complying with exacting emissions standards

Even now, there are plenty of good reasons for choosing a CNG engine. The compressed natural gas used in passenger cars is inexpensive, and emissions from the vehicles (and thus also vehicle tax in many countries) are low. But this alternative fuel has much greater potential: CNG is mainly composed of methane, whose chemical composition means that cars powered by natural gas could emit far less CO2 than at present. In combination with modifications to the engine, the saving could be as much as 33 percent over a comparable gasoline-powered car. However, this all depends on combustion processes that are tailored precisely to natural gas. By 2020, newly registered vehicles in the EU will not be permitted to emit more than 95 grams of CO2 per kilometer on average. By 2025, this limit could be even lower. Efficient CNG vehicles can help meet exacting emissions standards, and this not only because they emit less CO2. Emissions of particulate matter are also significantly lower than from gasoline or diesel engines.

Gasoline direct injection points the way forward

Today’s CNG vehicles are generally bivalent, running on gasoline and CNG with engines designed for gasoline direct injection. For CNG operation, they are fitted with an additional manifold injection system for methane. “The problem with this configuration is that neither the combustion process nor the values for efficiency and emissions can be optimized. For this to happen, the CNG – like the gasoline – needs to be injected directly into the combustion chamber,” says Dr. Andreas Birkefeld, the project leader from Robert Bosch GmbH. Because methane behaves differently from gasoline when injected directly, it is important to optimize the combustion process for methane.


The Direct4Gas researchers and engineers will design samples of a direct injector that satisfies much higher standards than the manifold injection valves used up to now. It will have to be especially robust, gas-tight, and reliable, and meter the CNG very precisely. Modifications to the engine itself are to be kept to a minimum, so that the industry can continue using the same components as for gasoline engines. The project team will equip experimental gas engines with the newly developed injector, and test it in the laboratory and in vehicles. Researchers will also examine mixture formation, ignition, and exhaust-gas treatment and develop specific solutions. Direct injection will also be superior to manifold injection in the low-rpm range that is so important for handling: the researchers estimate that direct injection will increase the amount of torque that can be delivered by as much as 60 percent. This would make the CNG engines of the future significantly more dynamic.

A step toward production-readiness

The long-term objective of the consortium of automotive suppliers and automakers is to create the conditions needed for making the technology ready for production, and the project is an important step toward this goal. The consortium is led by Robert Bosch GmbH. Other partners include Daimler AG and the Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS). Umicore AG & Co. KG is an associated partner. Following a resolution of the German Bundestag, Direct4Gas is supported with 3.8 million euros from the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy as part of the “Increasing vehicle powertrain efficiency” initiative. The project started in January 2015 and will run until the end of 2017.

(Source: Bosch Media)

ICE, PHEV or Pure-EV

(Internal Combustion Engine, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (like my GTE!) or a pure Electric only Vehicle)

I have been playing around with a few figures relating to the overall costs of running these three different vehicles and trying to compare them – it is a difficult task! Here is what I have done so far, comments and ideas are welcome:


The cost of charging an EV battery depends on the size of the battery, how depleted the battery is and how quickly you charge it. As a guide, charging a pure-electric car from flat to full will cost from as little as £1.00 to £4.00. This is for a typical pure-EV with a 24kWh battery which will offer around 100 miles range.

This means the average cost of ‘fuel’ will be approximately £0.03 per mile. Similar costs will apply to PHEVs and E-REVs, and because the batteries are smaller, it will cost less to charge them. See also the figures in table 2.

In some cases it may be possible to charge overnight and take advantage of cheaper electricity rates. Other options include charging from domestic solar panels. At this time it is calculated that the total cost of ownership of an electric car is similar to an ICE because of the additional purchase costs. However, this will change and if other advantages are included such as congestion charges (currently £11.50 per day in London for ICE but zero for EVs), the EV will be significantly cheaper in the longer term.

Table 1 Comparison of costs

Term, mileage, fuel cost ICE Pure-EV PHEV Notes
Annual mileage 10,000 10,000 10,000
Cost of fuel (£/gallon or £kW/h) £5.70 £0.05 £5.70 / £0.05 Electricity (£/kWh) average standard/cheap/solar used for calculation
Official combined cycle mpg 68 mpg 150 Wh/km 166 mpg Electricity consumption (Wh/km)
‘Real world‘ mpg 50 mpg 175 Wh/km0.28 kWh/mile 100 mpg *1 Real world consumption
Total fuel costs £1,140 £140 £570 (annual miles * fuel cost / mpg)(annual miles * fuel cost * kWh/mile)
Vehicle cost information        
Purchase price £28,000 £34,000 £35,000 Estimates based on current list prices
Plug-in car grant -£5,000 -£5,000 A grant to reduce cost by 25% (up to £5,000)
Net purchase price £28,000 £29,000 £30,000
Depreciation cost/year £8,400 £8,700 £9,000 30% used – this will vary however
Residual value £19,600 £21,300 £21,000
Service, maintenance and repair £190 £155 £190 Based on average of published figures.
Other information        
Vehicle Excise Duty and Registration Fee £30 £0 £0
TOTAL COST £9,760 £8,995 £9,760 Per year

Important note: the figures used in this table are ‘best guesses’ but none-the-less give a reasonable comparison. The bottom line is that the three cars have broadly the same overall total cost even though the Pure-EV and the PHEV have much lower fuel costs. The key factor will be how the depreciation cost of the EVs pan out. However, over subsequent years the fuel savings associated with the EVs will become more significant.

Being able to programme EVs to charge during the night will allow drivers to take advantage of cheaper electricity prices, whilst using any surplus electricity. In addition, the development of smart metering systems which can automatically select charging times and tariffs can also help to manage demand on the grid. The National Grid manages the grid on a second by second basis to ensure that supply and demand are met and to indicate to the market if there is a shortfall or surplus of power.

*1 Very much depends on the length of journey – an average value was used

Free motoring…

…we’ll almost, at least very cheap motoring is the plan!

On the 7th August 2015 I took delivery of the (almost) final part of the puzzle that when put together will result in big savings – I hope. I still need to get the proper charging point together with gadgets to monitor energy use etc., but I am nearly there. Here is my new Golf GTE (from Inchcape in Chelmsford) taking its first charge on my drive:


Golf GTE – one of the first in my region

The Golf GTE 1.4 TSI produces 204PS (Pferdestärke, abbreviation of the German term for metric horsepower).  It is a PHEV (plug-in hybrid electric vehicle) 5dr DSG boasting 0–62mph in 7.6 seconds. and up to 166.0 mpg. The electric range is 31 miles and when electric and petrol combine, the total range is 580 miles. The previous data are laboratory figures of course, I will report back on what happens in the real world in due course. However, its performance is very impressive so far. Because the car is a plug-in hybrid it attracted the £5000 government grant. More on overall prices later though because cheap mileage is all very well but initial and running costs still have to be considered.

The other part of my cunning plan involves solar panels (actually photo-voltaic or PV panels) and these will be used to charge the 8.8 kWh lithium-ion battery in 3.75 hours from a domestic mains outlet, or 2.25 hours from a domestic wallbox.

PV panels (a 4kW array) fitted in February (the snow being the clue)

PV panels (a 4kW array) fitted in February (the snow being the clue)

My PV array has saved me buying a lot of electricity and has further resulted in an income. So far this year I have received about £400, by selling the excess energy back to the grid (using what is known as a feed-in tariff). In addition, my electricity bill has reduced as shown in the following chart:

Comparison of grid power used with solar generated and last year's average use (09/08/2015).

Comparison of grid power used with solar generated and last year’s average use (09/08/2015).

As you would expect, we pay much more for the electricity we use than the price we get when selling it (something like 14p per unit when buying and 3p per unit when selling). The way the feed-in tariff works is that the electricity generation company pays us for 50% of the amount generated by the PV panels. So the more we generate the more we get but of course the other advantage is gained because the more of the PV energy we use, the less electricity we purchase. This is where the new car comes in. The plan is that whenever we return home, we will make sure all the available charge in the car’s lithium-iron (Li-on) traction batteries has been used up. This will simply be done by switching the car to full e-mode when 35 miles from home. The car will now only be charged when enough solar energy is available (emergencies excepted of course). I am doing this manually at the moment but it will be automated in due course.

I have just completed a journey, by pure coincidence, to the UK VW headquarters where they have a charge point (well they should have shouldn’t they)! This was about a 170 mile round trip for me. I set off with a fully charged battery and managed to add 20 miles worth of charge while I was there. The car trip computer showed an overall average mpg of 68 – so just under 2.5 gallons. for the journey. My previous car (a modern Golf GTD 2.0ltr) would have done the same at an average of about 48 mpg (about 3.5 gallons). This journey was a good combination of country roads and motorway so probably indicates a good average. I did not try to save fuel or equally I didn’t accelerate/brake rapidly so the figures are probably quite a good start for real-world use. When used in hybrid mode only, the average was about 50 mpg .

I am expecting to win much more on the shorter journeys we do, which will use no petrol or very little. My journey to the office at the IMI for example, is about 42 miles each way. We have a free charging point! My hope therefore is to only use about half a gallon of fuel for the return trip (60 miles on full electric and 25 miles at 50 mpg).

Watch this space, more details to come…






Future of mobility

Bosch and TomTom partner on innovative mapping technology for automated driving

  • High-precision maps are essential for highly automated driving
  • Bosch is using TomTom maps in its automated test vehicles
  • Freeways and freeway-like roads in Germany to be digitized for automated driving by the end of 2015
  • Maps for highly automated driving have to be accurate to decimeter precision
  • Collaboration will result in innovative vehicle positioning concepts

The development of automated driving is a puzzle with many pieces. Together with the Dutch map and traffic provider TomTom, Bosch is getting closer to the complete picture. The two companies have agreed to collaborate in the area of maps for highly automated driving. Under this agreement, TomTom is designing the necessary maps, while Bosch, on the basis of its systems engineering work, is defining the specifications these maps have to meet. Even now, the maps are already being used in the automated vehicles Bosch is testing on certain public roads in Germany (A81) and in the United States (I280). Commenting on the importance of this venture, the Bosch board of management member Dr. Dirk Hoheisel says: “Only with high precision maps will automated driving on freeways be possible from 2020.” And Jan Maarten de Vries, Vice President Automotive at TomTom, adds: “By the end of 2015, we want to have new high-precision maps for automated driving for all freeways and freeway-like roads in Germany.” Road coverage will subsequently be extended to the rest of Europe and North America.

1-CC-21380 1-BBM-21368 1-BBM-21371

Multiple map layers, significantly increased accuracy Maps for highly automated driving and the maps used in current navigation systems differ primarily in two respects. First, accuracy is significantly higher – down to decimeter precision. Second, the map material for highly automated driving consists of multiple layers. The traditional base navigation layer is used to calculate routes from A to B, including the sequence of roads to be driven. The localization layer uses a novel positioning concept providing highly accurate map data, which the automated vehicle uses to accurately calculate its position within a lane. To do this, the vehicle compares its sensed environment with the corresponding information in the localization layer. In this way, the vehicle can accurately define its position relative to the road and its surroundings. On top of the localization layer, the planning layer contains not only attributes such as lane divider types, traffic signs, speed limits, etc., but also 3D information about road geometry, including curves and slopes. With the help of this very detailed lane information, the automated vehicle can decide things such as when and how to change lane.

In highly automated driving, safety and comfort depend crucially on map material that is up to date. For example, up-to-the-minute speed-limit information has to be available instantly. Only then can vehicles select the best proactive driving strategy. In this regard, Bosch and TomTom rely on several elements and services to keep the map data up to date: the TomTom mapping fleet will continue to be regularly on the road, accurately mapping new roads and routes. And to register recent changes on the roads, such as changed lane configurations or new traffic signs, TomTom and Bosch plan to use feedback from fleets of vehicles equipped with the necessary sensors. Information about changed road conditions captured this way will be transferred to a server, verified, and entered in the digital map database. The updated map will then be fed back to the highly automated driving vehicle, enabling it to see effectively beyond its sensors.

Extension of existing, successful partnership For Bosch and TomTom, this collaboration in the area of maps for highly automated driving is an extension of an already existing, successful partnership. For Bosch’s connected horizon, TomTom also provides dynamic map information via their real-time service backend – albeit without any localization layer. In this way, the connected horizon makes it possible to predict the route ahead and adapt driving strategy accordingly. This solution was demonstrated for the first time in 2014, at the IAA Commercial Vehicles trade show in Hanover. The system recognizes potential black spots behind hills, or the start of a traffic jam, at an early stage, and automatically reduces the speed of the vehicle well in good time. This considerably reduces the risk of rear-end collisions. In addition, smoother driving behavior means more comfort for the driver and improved fuel efficiency for the vehicle.

For beer lovers and petrol heads only


Old Speckled Hen took its name from an MG car which was used as a run-around for workers in the MG factory. Over years of service, the car became covered in flecks of paint, gaining it acclaim in the town and earned it the nickname “Owld Speckled ‘Un”, translated into Old Speckled Hen for the brown ale first brewed by Morland in 1979 when the brewery was asked by MG to create a commemorative beer for the factory’s 50th anniversary.



Electronic transmission control

 50 years of automatics: how Bosch taught the car to change gear itself

    • In 1965, Bosch developed the first electronic control for manual transmissions
    • Motronic made the breakthrough of automatic transmissions possible
    • Modern transmission control: high-performance computer in miniature

Fifty years ago, the first Bosch prototype featuring electronic transmission control made its maiden journey. The gearshift of the Glas 1700 – a modern mid-range sedan – moved as if by magic. The engineers used the car as a test vehicle for a completely new type of system. Their hope was that electronic control for manual transmissions would relieve drivers of the need to depress the clutch and shift gears by hand. The technology was developed under the leadership of the young engineer Hermann Scholl, who is now the honorary chairman of the Bosch Group. It was designed to be an affordable alternative to expensive automatic transmissions, which back then were offered almost exclusively in luxury sedans. Several hundred systems were manufactured for the Glas 1700 in 1965. “However, electronic transmission control technology was ahead of its time. The market wasn’t ready for it,” Hermann Scholl says. In addition, it was during this time that the family-owned company Glas was acquired by the automaker BMW, and BMW was not interested in using the new technology in its cars.

Electronic control for manual transmissions from 1965   Electronic control for manual transmissions would relieve drivers of the need to depress the clutch and shift gears by hand. The technology was developed under the leadership of the young engineer Hermann Scholl, who is now the honorary chairman of the Bosch Group. It was designed to be an affordable alternative to expensive automatic transmissions, which back then were offered almost exclusively in luxury sedans.

Electronic control for manual transmissions from 1965
Electronic control for manual transmissions would relieve drivers of the need to depress the clutch and shift gears by hand. The technology was developed under the leadership of the young engineer Hermann Scholl, who is now the honorary chairman of the Bosch Group. It was designed to be an affordable alternative to expensive automatic transmissions, which back then were offered almost exclusively in luxury sedans.

Motronic created the basis for automatic transmissions It was not until years later, in 1979, that another Bosch invention was to be the trigger for the mass success of the self-shifting transmission. With Motronic – a combination of electronic fuel injection and ignition – Bosch had installed a freely programmable microprocessor in cars for the first time. But there was more to it than that. In combination with its separate memory, it was the first ever instance of a computer being used in a car. “Motronic provided a second chance for the transmission control system – though this time for automatic, not manual, transmissions. In combination with the engine management system, it ensured the ideal automatic gear change,” Hermann Scholl says. It was only as a result of combining the two systems – electronic transmission control and engine management – that automatic gear change became far easier. When manually shifting gear, the driver also uses the gas pedal to control the engine. Similarly, the transmission control system sends commands to the engine. The engine management system interprets these commands and carries them out. In 1983, this transmission control system was installed for the first time in the BMW 745i – together with the 4HP22 automatic transmission made by ZF AG, based in Friedrichshafen, Germany.

Modern transmission control: high-tech computer in miniature At the time, the technology was still quite exclusive, but over the course of the following two decades, it became standard in all cars with automatic transmissions. It also anticipated a major trend. The electronic transmission control, which synchronizes gear shifts with injection and ignition parameters, is, in the best sense, a connected system designed to provide optimum driving performance, comfort, fuel consumption, and emissions. “The transmission control system selects gears in such a way that the engine is almost always in the ideal operating range. To make sure it stays that way, modern transmissions are equipped with a great deal of digital intelligence,” Hermann Scholl says. The control unit is a high-tech miniature computer that enables the complex operation of different types of automatic transmissions. Indeed, the processing capacity of a modern transmission control unit is 160 times more powerful than that of the computer used for the first lunar flight.

Coasting and connectivity: the future of automatic transmissions Today, half of all new vehicles in the world are equipped with an automatic transmission, and all the signs point toward greater connectivity. At Bosch, proof of this takes the form of the electronic horizon, which connects the transmission with up-to-the-minute navigation information. Navigation systems know the area and can transmit this data to the automatic transmission, which, in turn, can shift into neutral during coasting and use the residual momentum – for example, when it knows that a lower speed limit is in force beyond the next bend. This “smarter” automatic transmission combined with an electronic horizon can provide additional fuel savings of ten percent or more.

(Source: Bosch Media)

Tyre pressure monitoring system (TPMS)

Introduction A tyre pressure monitoring system (TPMS) is a safety feature that continually monitors a vehicles’ tyres and alerts the driver to changes in tyre pressure. The changes in pressure can be detected by either direct or indirect means.

Indirect TPMS This is generally fitted to a vehicle that has had fitted or can be fitted with run flat tyres. This is because it is difficult to see or feel deflation in this type of tyre. Indirect tyre pressure monitoring systems do not use pressure sensors to monitor tyre pressure, they work from the ABS or speed sensors on the vehicle. Indirect systems monitor tyre pressure by assessing the rotational speeds of each tyre, and work on the premise that an under-inflated tyre has a slightly different diameter than a fully inflated tyre. An algorithm is used to assess the differences in wheel speeds. The under-inflated tyre would therefore rotate at a different speed than the correctly inflated one, causing a tyre pressure warning. The deflated tyre is not identified, the driver has to check all 4 tyres.

Indirect TPMS

Indirect TPMS

Indirect TPMS operation

Negative aspects of indirect TPMS

  • The system is not very accurate.
  • When tyres are re-inflated, the system needs to be re-calibrated.
  • When tyre positions are changed, the system needs to be re-calibrated.
  • When the tyres are replaced, the system needs to be re-calibrated.
  • The system can be re-calibrated by the driver without first ensuring that the pressure is correct in all tyres.
  • A puncture after parking is not immediately identified.

Tyre pressure monitoring and the law in Europe

  • From November 2012 all new type vehicles in the M1 category (vehicles under 3.5 Tonnes with less than 8 seats) will be required by law to have TPMS installed. This applies to the road wheels not the spare.
  • By November 2014 all new passenger vehicles will have to have TPMS installed by the manufacturer.

The law is not currently retrospective, and does not apply to older vehicles. Many car manufacturers have already introduced TPMS to their vehicles ahead of the 2012 legislation change. More and more cars now have TPMS already fitted. Showrooms are full of TPMS compliant cars. This law applies to passenger vehicles only, with no more than 7 seats.

(Source: Continental Tyres)

Hybrid technology from Porsche and Bosch

With the 918 Spyder, the Panamera S E-Hybrid and the Cayenne S E-Hybrid, Porsche was the first car manufacturer in the world to offer three plug-in hybrid models. Among the suppliers Porsche relies on for the innovative drive system is Bosch. The possibilities offered by the combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor will impressively be demonstrated by the Porsche hybrid vehicles at the 62nd International Automotive Press Briefing at the Boxberg test track, starting May 19.

“We promised to redefine driving pleasure, efficiency and performance with the 918 Spyder. We kept our word, and in so doing repositioned hybrid technology”, says Wolfgang Hatz, Member of the Executive Board – Research and Development at Porsche AG. The Porsche 918 Spyder1) was the first globally road-legal car to complete the 20.6 kilometre lap of the North Loop of the Nürburgring in less than seven minutes. At exactly six minutes and 57 seconds, this super sports car with plug-in hybrid drive beat the existing record by 14 seconds. Porsche also integrated the knowledge gained from the develop-ment of the technology demonstrator into the electrification of the rest of its model range. The Panamera S E-Hybrid2) and Cayenne S E-Hybrid3) round off the product range and make Porsche the global market leader for hybrid cars in the premium segment.

“Porsche and Bosch have teamed up to bring electrification to electrifying sports cars together. Electricity gives added driving pleasure and efficiency”, says Dr. Rolf Bulander, Chairman of the Business Sector Mobility Solutions at Bosch. For the three plug-in models made by Porsche, Bosch supplies the power electronics, the battery pack, the electric motors for the Cayenne and Panamera and the electric motor installed on the front axle of the 918 Spyder.

918 Spyder: a unique combination of performance and efficiency
The project definition for the 918 Spyder’s development team was to build the super sports car for the next decade with a highly efficient and high performance hybrid drive. The completely new development, which logically started from scratch on a blank piece of paper, allows a new concept without having to make any concessions. The whole car was designed around the hybrid drive. The 918 Spyder thus highlights the potential of hybrid drives, i.e. the simultaneous increase in efficiency and performance, without one coming at the expense of the other. Thanks to the SMG 180/120 electric motor developed by Bosch, the Porsche 918 Spyder has an additional 210 kW (286 hp) of driving power. The electric motor on the front axle of the 918 Spyder delivers a torque of 210 Nm right from the start, while the motor on the rear axle delivers 375 Nm. The result is a total system output of 652 kW (887 hp) with a maximum torque of up to 1,280 Nm, allowing the 918 Spyder to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in a mere 2.6 seconds. The super sports car’s fuel consumption, on the other hand, is an amazing 3.1 litres per 100 km, making it more efficient in the NEDC test than most of today’s small cars.

Panamera S E-Hybrid and Cayenne S E-Hybrid: fuel consumption of a small car
The driving experience of a sports car combined with the consumption of a small car – the Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid and Panamera S E-Hybrid prove that these two are not contradictory to each other. The world’s first plug-in hybrid amongst the premium SUVs with a system output of 306 kW (416 hp) achieves an NEDC fuel consumption of just 3.4 l/100 km. The plug-in hybrid model of the Porsche Gran Turismo, which also has a system output of 306 kW (416 hp) stands out thanks to its weight advantage, rear-wheel drive and low drag, giving it a fuel consumption of just 3.1 l/100 km.

In the plug-in hybrid models of the Porsche Cayenne and Panamera, Bosch’s IMG-300 electric motor provides additional electrical propulsion. It gives a boost of up to 310 Nm of additional torque and provides 70 kW (95 hp) of additional power. The central interface between the electric motor and the battery is the INVCON 2.3 module made by Bosch. The power electronics are the control centre of the electric powertrain, because the system converts the direct current stored as energy in the battery into three-phase alternating current for the electric motor and vice versa. The traction battery stores the electricity in the powertrain. It is made up of prismatic cells with an energy capacity of 9.4 kilowatt hours in the Panamera S E-Hybrid and 10.8 kilowatt hours in the Cayenne S E-Hybrid that can be fully charged from a normal household power socket in less than four hours. Using a high current power supply, the charging time is almost halved to a good two hours.

1-GS-21198 1-GS-21200

Panamera S E-Hybrid:

Panamera S E-Hybrid:

1-GS-21201 1-GS-21199

Electrification and internet in the car

Bosch is linking new technologies to gasoline and diesel

  •     Gasoline engines: 350 bar for direct injection
  •     Diesel engines: 48-volt hybrid to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions
  •     Dr. Rolf Bulander: “Bits and bytes are making cars more efficient”

Paper for download: Dr. Rolf Bulander – Powertrain optimization using a comprehensive systems approach

Lawmakers have mandated economical, low-emission vehicles. Car buyers want vehicles that are safe and that offer more convenience and engine performance. At the International Vienna Motor Symposium 2015, Bosch presented numerous innovations that meet all of these requirements. “Bosch technology is making cars more efficient, more convenient, and more fun to drive,” said Dr. Rolf Bulander, member of the board of management of Robert Bosch GmbH and chairman of the Mobility Solutions business sector. All three aspects come together in the Bosch boost recuperation system. In the New European Driving Cycle, the 48-volt hybrid can cut CO2 emissions by 7 percent (based on compact class). Thanks to its electric-supported coasting, the car offers a smoother ride and can deliver up to 150 Nm more torque on demand.


Connected electronic horizon: efficiency thanks to real-time data
Innovative advances will transform automotive powertrains over the next few years. “Electrification and connectivity will give a further boost to gasoline and diesel engines,” predicted Bulander. “Bits and bytes are making cars more efficient.” Electrified vehicles stand to gain tremendous benefits from connectivity. They are safer, more efficient, and more fun to drive. One example of how this works is the connected electronic horizon. In the future, this Bosch technology will supply essential traffic information about construction sites, traffic jams, and accidents in real time. From this basis, it will be possible to further improve existing functions such as start-stop coasting. At the same time, plug-in hybrids can use the system to implement a predictive operating strategy. Such technologies can cut CO2 emissions by a double-digit percentage.


Even after 2020, the vast majority of new cars will be powered by fossil fuels
In his presentation, Bulander reaffirmed that internal-combustion engines will remain the basis of efficient mobility. Even ten years from now, the vast majority of new vehicles worldwide will be powered by fossil fuels. Europe, the U.S., and China will raise the legal requirements for engine efficiency still further over that same period. Starting in 2021, the average new car in the EU will have an emissions cap of 95 g of CO2 per kilometre. Based on the current situation, advances in engine design should make it possible to achieve these values. The CO2 emissions for a gasoline engine in the subcompact class can be reduced to 85 g per kilometre, and for a diesel engine, that figure can be even lower than 70 g per kilometre. Enhanced aerodynamics and reduced rolling friction could once again lead to further improvements. Vehicles in the premium class and SUVs will need additional electrification.


Engineering turns its attention to real driving emissions
In addition to current emission regulations, engineers are increasingly focusing on real driving emissions. The European Union is discussing whether to introduce real driving emission tests starting in 2017. This measuring method for diesel cars concentrates primarily on the emissions of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in real-life driving situations. For cars with gasoline direct injection, the focus is on the level of particulates emitted. A number of vehicles currently in production already expel an extremely low amount of emissions – for example, during rapid acceleration or at high speeds. Now it’s time to drive the spread of this capability and develop cost-effective technologies that will ensure compliance, whatever the driving conditions. Bosch presented several approaches at the International Vienna Motor Symposium that support this endeavor. Bulander put special emphasis on interlinking the domains of electrification, automation, and connectivity: “Bosch pools these aspects in the vehicle and creates ideal systems,” he said.

One example of this approach is the innovative direct injection system with laser-drilled spray holes in gasoline engines. The holes’ precise edges swirl the fuel in the combustion chamber in such a way that it burns extremely efficiently. Increasing the injection pressure from 200 to 350 bar cuts particulate emissions to an even greater extent – especially under high load points and dynamic engine operation. Bosch debuted this refined version of its gasoline direct injection system at the Vienna Motor Symposium.

In diesel engines, electrification reduces nitrogen oxide emissions right in the engine, making exhaust gas treatment still more efficient. Bulander demonstrated this by presenting Bosch’s new 48-volt boost recuperation system. Through the judicious application of boosts, the system can markedly reduce untreated nitrogen oxide emissions, especially at high loads or when the car is accelerating. The crucial factor here is that this effect cuts emissions directly at the point of combustion by up to 20 percent. This has the effect of significantly lowering exhaust pipe emissions: Bosch believes the system could allow the storage catalytic converter to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 80 percent. Electrification will also increase the level of efficiency for urea-based systems as well (SCR catalytic converters). These exhaust gas treatment applications consume much less AdBlue, which means the fluid doesn’t need to be refilled as often.

(Source: Bosch Media)