Euro 6 made simple

(Information from Bosch Media)

What is Euro 6?

Euro 6 is a European Union regulation that sets emission standards for vehicles. “Euro 6 will make diesel cars as clean as gasoline cars,” says Dr. Rolf Bulander, the member of the board of management of Robert Bosch GmbH responsible for powertrain technology. The main thrust of the new regulation is to set lower limits for vehicle emissions of particulates and nitrogen oxides. As of September 1, 2014, diesel vehicles may emit no more than 80 mg of nitrogen oxides per kilometre (gasoline vehicles: 60 mg per kilometre). This replaces the previous limit of 180 mg per kilometre. Starting January 1, 2015, all new vehicles sold must meet the Euro 6 limits.

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mL5gZrBwKCI

What is the point of European emissions legislation?

Since the Euro 1 regulation was introduced in 1993, emissions from road traffic have been drastically reduced. Advanced automotive technology – as provided by Bosch – reduces emissions of substances such as CO2, nitrogen oxides, and particulates. Technical advances in powertrains are also having an effect: since 1990, particulate emissions from diesel engines have been reduced by around 99 percent, while modern diesels emit some 98 percent less nitrogen oxide than comparable vehicles from the early 1990s. As electrification of the powertrain continues to progress, emissions will fall even further.

Will cars now be more expensive?

Prices for models that comply with Euro 6 are generally in the same range as prices for comparable models that meet Euro 5. Sometimes Euro 6 models come with additional features – a different transmission, say, or different tires – that push up the price. Take away the additional cost of these extras, and there is currently no appreciable increase in the price of Euro 6 models.

How does Euro 6 change the technology of diesel vehicles?

Diesel vehicles need a perfectly tuned exhaust-treatment system in order to meet the lower limits set out in Euro 6. For vehicles weighing up to around 1,700 kilograms, a low-cost NOx storage catalytic converter is sufficient. “In heavy vehicles, only an SCR catalytic converter with AdBlue will do,” says Dr. Markus Heyn, president of the Diesel Systems division at Robert Bosch GmbH. This system injects AdBlue, an odourless urea solution, which converts the nitrogen oxides into harmless water vapour and nitrogen. AdBlue is refilled at regular service intervals.

Will my old vehicle still get the same emissions sticker?

The allocation of emissions stickers in Germany is not affected by the switch to Euro 6. Anyone who currently receives a Euro 4 or Euro 5 emissions sticker allowing access to the city centre will keep the sticker after Euro 6 comes into force on January 1, 2015.

What does Euro 6 change for drivers?

For anyone who already has a car, Euro 6 changes nothing in Germany. They can continue to use their vehicle as before. According to the latest information, vehicle taxes for Euro 5 diesel vehicles will not change in Germany. It will also still be possible to drive in low-emission zones. Buyers of new vehicles, however, should be aware of the switch to Euro 6 if they want to have a model equipped with cutting-edge technology.

Further information is available online at www.bosch.com

Assessing the condition of a used vehicle

The price you may agree to pay for a used vehicle is dependent on a number of factors, including mileage, colour and condition of the vehicle, promotions currently on offer and the location. This original list price may assist in determining value but it is more common to use a published price guide. Optional equipment does not necessarily increase the used vehicle valuation.

Figure 1 VW Golf

There are a number of steps that you should take to reach a final opinion and therefore a value on a used vehicle:

  1. Documentation
  2. Mileage
  3. Accident damage
  4. Safety
  5. Test drive
  6. Engine
  7. Locks, windows and general controls

Each of these steps involve getting answers to a number of questions. These are presented over the next few screens.

Figure 2 Checking a car means following a number of steps even if it looks good to start with!

Documents

  • Can the seller show you the registration document?
  • Is the seller the registered keeper shown on the registration document? If not, why are they selling it for someone else?
  • Does the registration document have a watermark?
  • Are there any spelling mistakes on the registration document?
  • Do the vehicle identification number, engine number and colour match the documentation?
  • Does the registration/number plate match the documentation?
  • Has the vehicle identification number plate been tampered with?
  • Do vehicle identification numbers etched on glass or lights match the vehicle identification number plate and documentation?
  • Are there any sign of scratches on glass to remove etched-in marks?
  • Does the fuel filler look as if it has been forced or replaced?
  • Does the seller have a current annual test inspection certificate?
  • Is the handbook available? Also check service records.

Figure 3 Documentation

Mileage

  • Does the mileage, age and appearance of the car look consistent?
  • Are there any signs like worn screws to indicate that the instruments might have been tampered with? (Digital odometers can be tampered with electronically so clues like this won’t exist)
  • Check recorded mileage on service records, test certificates and other documents.
  • Does it look consistent with current mileage/condition and increase steadily year on year?
  • Check annual test status and history online if you have access to this facility.

Figure 4 Mileage

Accident Damage

  • Are there any signs of inconsistent gaps between panels or mismatched colours that could be a sign of extensive repairs?
  • Is the paint finish even across the car?
  • Are there any traces of paint spray on handles, window seals or plastic mouldings?
  • Could the car’s colour have been changed? (Look under carpets and in other hidden areas in particular.)
  • Any unusual looking welding under the bonnet or in the boot?

Figure 5 Look for damage

Safety

  • Are the tyres in good condition and are the specifications and dimensions correct? Tyres with less than 3mm of tread will have to be replaced soon.
  • Is the spare wheel or tyre inflator/sealant kit in serviceable condition?
  • Are the jack and other tools present?
  • Do all the seatbelts operate correctly? Check there are no cuts or fraying that could affect the way they work.
  • If airbags are fitted, check that warning lights operate as described in the handbook – normally they will come on with the ignition and then go out?
  • Do all lights and windscreen wipers/washers work correctly?

Figure 6 Check for the correct tyres

Figure 7 Make sure the wheels are not damaged

Test Drive

  • Do all warning lights operate normally? Lights will generally come on to test and then go out – unless there’s a fault.
  • Are the brakes effective or does it take a long time or a lot of effort to stop?
  • Is braking even or does the car pull to one side?
  • Are there any unusual noises when you brake?
  • Is the handbrake effective?
  • Can you feel any steering vibration or does the vehicle pull to one side?
  • If ABS is fitted, does the warning light go out after the engine is started?

Figure 8 Headlights

Figure 9 Rear lights

Engine

  • Can you hear any abnormal noises when the engine is started from cold?
  • Does the oil warning light go out as soon as the engine starts?
  • Are there any signs of excessive visible exhaust emissions?
    • White water vapour from the exhaust is normal while the engine is cold
    • Blue smoke isn’t normal – it indicates that oil is burning
    • Faint blue smoke from diesels is OK but black smoke is serious
  • Does the clutch operate normally? A noise when you press the pedal or a high biting point could mean that repairs will be required soon.
  • Is the catalytic converter in good condition? Look for a recent emissions test, either alone or as part of an annual test. This will confirm that emissions are within the limits applied to modern cars.
  • Is there sludge on the underside of the oil filler cap? This could indicate poor servicing or predominantly short journey use.
  • Is the oil level correct? Too low shows neglect; too high could be a clue that the engine is using oil but it could just have been over filled in error.
  • Has the cam belt been replaced according to the service schedule?

Figure 10 Engine bay

Figure 11 Oil filler

Figure 12 General check for leaks

Figure 13 Battery

Locks, windows and general controls

  • Do all the locks, including central locking and remote control, work properly?
  • Do all windows, including the sunroof if fitted, open and close normally?
  • Can you see any signs of forced entry, damaged or different locks, suggesting they’ve been replaced?
  • Are all the correct keys available? Check the handbook to see which keys were provided when the car was new. Modern keys are expensive to replace, particularly the coloured ‘master’ key provided by some manufacturers to programme new spare keys to the car.
  • Are locking wheel nuts fitted? Check that the special adapter required is included with the tool kit. Make sure it fits too.
  • Do all the minor controls operate correctly – heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, radio/CD/USB, navigation etc.?

Figure 14 All controls should work

Summary The key to assessing the condition and value of a used vehicle is being thorough and consistent. Work your way through all the steps outlined previously and use a current price guide – but remember that the price guide is just that – a guide! The final value you agree can also be determined by other factors, for example, the value of the new car a customer may be buying from you. Watch this video and see if you can list all the points the technician is checking.

Using jump leads

Introduction

It is important to check the vehicle handbook before using jump leads. It will include general advice on jump starting but some also include model specific procedures. If this is the case you must follow the manufacturer’s procedure NOT the steps described here.

Figure 3 Jump leads

Safety

Jump starting a vehicle is a safe procedure if some simple safety rules are followed (in fact these rules are appropriate for most work in the engine area):

  • Keep metal objects a way; this includes rings, watch straps, tools, etc. Touching a battery post can cause a spark, possibly exploding the battery and releasing acid.
  • Don’t attempt to jump start a battery that is leaking or looks damaged because it could explode.
  • Avoid smoking or naked flames. Batteries give off flammable gases (hydrogen and oxygen) so an explosion could result.
  • Keep your hands well away and avoid loose fitting clothing such as scarves or neckties. When the engine is running these items become trapped in pulleys or belts and serious injury can result.
  • Don’t use damaged jump leads. Broken conductors or damaged clamps can overheat and may cause a fire.

Step by step

Before connecting any leads make sure the vehicles are the same voltage and that they’re parked with their handbrakes on and ignition off. The vehicles must not touch as this can cause a short circuit.

Figure 2 Do not let the vehicle bodies touch

Procedure

  1. Connect the positive terminal of the donor vehicle’s good battery to the positive terminal of the flat battery using the red lead.
  2. Connect the negative terminal of the good battery to a suitable earthing point on the engine or chassis of the other vehicle using the black lead. This earthing point must be away from the battery and fuel system.
  3. Now wait three or four minutes for the voltages to equalise before starting either engine.
  4. Start the engine of the donor car and allow it to run for a few minutes.
  5. With the donor car engine still running, start the engine of the other car and leave both running at a fast idle for ten minutes.
  6. Do not remove the jump leads while the engines are running. This can cause serious damage to the electronics on either car.
  7. If the jump leads get hot switch off both engines and allow the leads to cool to avoid a possible fire.
  8. Turn off the ignition on both cars and then disconnect the red (positive) lead being careful not to touch the clips against the other lead or the car bodywork. Now disconnect the black lead.
  9. Start the car that had the dead battery using its own battery power.

Note: If the car will not start this could indicate a more serious problem with the starting, charging or ignition system that will need further investigating.

Figure 3 Jump leads correctly connected to the battery

Bosch brings the internet into the car

Twenty years ago, the internet revolutionized computing. Over the next few years, it will revolutionize the car. Bosch is making cars an active part of the internet – and bringing drivers a range of benefits. “A connected car is always going to be a better car,” says Wolf-Henning Scheider, the member of the board of management of Robert Bosch GmbH with responsibility for the Automotive Group. By networking vehicles, Bosch is improving the comfort, safety, and efficiency of tomorrow’s mobility. At the same time, Bosch is bringing the fascination of the digital world onto the streets of the physical world. In this, the company is pursuing three strategic objectives. First, Bosch is making the internet an intuitive in-car experience. Second, Bosch is connecting cars to the internet and creating driver assistance functions with added value. And finally, Bosch is networking cars with traffic infrastructure. “Connectivity is about more than just being able to surf the net on the open road,” says Scheider. Bosch is hard at work on all the necessary technologies and has already brought a selection of solutions to series production. In the future, we will see completely new functions emerge. For instance, in-car augmented reality will connect the virtual world with the physical world. The windshield will become the car’s main display area, bringing all vehicle information as well as data on the surroundings into the driver’s field of vision.

Objective 1: Making the internet part of the car

Connectivity is well on the way to becoming a megatrend in the automotive industry, as digitalization changes the lives of more and more people. And cars themselves will be a factor in how digitalization spreads. This is why Bosch engineers are working on solutions that are both intuitive and sophisticated. One of them is MySpin, a system that integrates iPhones and Android smartphones fully into the vehicle, with the phone’s display appearing on the vehicle’s main display. This makes using apps in the vehicle much easier, safer, and more convenient.

Bosch is also bringing the internet into the car without the help of cell phones. Today’s navigation systems can, for instance, find you a French or Italian restaurant. Future Bosch services will save drivers of electric vehicles the trouble of looking for charge spots by guiding them directly to the nearest available one, as well as letting drivers reserve the nearest parking space and guiding them to it.

Bosch is even connecting the powertrain to the internet. Bosch’s eHorizon system lays the groundwork by bringing together decades of systems competence in powertrains with innovative software programming. “We are bringing the mechatronic world and the digital world together,” says Scheider. Bosch has been offering eHorizon for commercial vehicles since 2012 as a way to smooth journeys out and reduce the amount of unnecessary acceleration and deceleration. For example, when this navigation software sees that the current two-kilometer downhill stretch of road leads to a built-up area, it can tell the vehicle to enter its most fuel-efficient mode or to charge the battery. This helps drivers save up to 15 percent of fuel. In the future, navigation data will be complemented by up-to-the-minute traffic data from the internet, so that vehicles can coast to a halt before they reach a traffic jam. This kind of connected navigation, where vehicles make use of data from the internet, is the future not only for trucks but also for passenger cars.

Objective 2: Making the car part of the internet

But the data highway in cars is no one-way street. Vehicles will not only use information from the internet, they will also provide information to their environment. That’s why Bosch is making vehicles part of the internet. “In connecting vehicles to the cloud, we see data protection as a fundamental requirement. The benefits have to far outweigh the potential risks,” says Scheider. To this end, Bosch subsidiary escrypt is developing security solutions that are tailored specifically to cars, such as standalone encryption.

Vehicles will in the future become sensors in their own right, gathering information about their surroundings and exchanging them with each other or with a server. Known as floating car data, this information is required both for highly dynamic maps and to improve vehicle safety. Whereas the driver sees no more than a bend ahead, the navigation system is already aware that just beyond it is a patch of ice or the tail end of a traffic jam. This means cars or trucks can be stopped from causing a pile-up or plowing into a line of standing traffic; the system can either warn the driver or automatically initiate a braking maneuver. “Connectivity is a building block in automation – and vice versa,” says Scheider.

There are already some applications in which vehicles communicate with the outside world. One example is the eCall, which will be mandatory in the European Union from 2015. When accidents occur, vehicles will automatically call the emergency services, with the call activated by the same sensors that trigger the airbag. This can reduce the time it takes for emergency crews to reach the scene by 50 percent in rural areas and by 40 percent in urban areas. Bosch’s role goes far beyond the technology itself. The company serves as the interface between the accident on the one hand and the emergency services on the other. Bosch associates deal with the emergency calls in an operations center to ensure that information for the emergency services is quick and precise.

Quite apart from improving safety, this approach to collecting vehicle data will also help to save money – especially for companies and fleet operators. With Leaseplan, Bosch is networking vehicles to allow completely new forms of fleet analysis. The company is also driving forward solutions for preventive maintenance. For instance, engine data from diggers or wheeled loaders can be sent to a database, analyzed, and compared with a constantly growing archive of data from similar vehicles under similar stresses. This allows Bosch to predict whether, and more importantly when, an important component will reach its wear limit – so that the component can be replaced in good time. Taking the example of the digger, this would avoid downtime and save lots of money: every hour that this kind of machinery is out of action costs its operator up to 2,000 euros. In the future, this type of functionality could also feature in passenger cars. One application could be a wear indicator for engine parts. This would let drivers replace a damaged part before they suddenly end up stranded at the side of the road.

Objective 3: Making the car part of the internet of things

Connecting the car to the internet is something that goes far beyond even these applications. “Automotive connectivity marks the start of a new era – until now, cars were isolated from their surroundings, but now the two will interact,” says Scheider. An entire metropolis, infrastructure included, could be networked to guarantee optimum mobility. Anyone wanting to travel from downtown to the outskirts could use a train in central districts and then switch to a car-sharing scheme later in the journey. Bosch platforms with service brokering allow public transportation companies, electric car hire companies, and e-bike rental companies to work together to offer an integrated mobility service.

Bosch software platforms already manage the infrastructure for major electromobility trials. One example is Hubject, the roaming system for charge spots, which allows customers to charge their electric car at charge spots belonging to various companies and pay conveniently via their normal electricity bill. But Bosch is also active beyond electromobility. Truck Secure Parking, for instance, is an online booking service for truck parking spaces along freeways. All the spaces feature video surveillance and are networked with a Bosch call center, which guarantees safety for drivers and freight.

Bosch is even working on how to put a whole city onto the internet of things. Bosch digital networking technology has been in operation in Monaco since mid-November 2013. This was the first step in putting into action a cooperation agreement signed by the Principality of Monaco and Bosch in July 2012. The project offers a glimpse of a future in which mobility is the primary focus of the connected city. There is no shortage of suitable applications – directing drivers to the nearest charge spot, booking and paying for parking spaces, switching to e-bikes as traffic dictates – and these developments can been found in all the world’s megacities.

This is why Bosch considers automotive connectivity to be a global market. Customers and car companies around the world are getting to grips with how to network the car. Automated, connected vehicles can for instance improve traffic flow by 80 percent, or guarantee safe, comfortable mobility for older people. What’s more, studies suggest that the number of road traffic fatalities could be reduced by up to 90 percent as vehicles become progressively more automated. In its efforts to connect cars to the internet, Bosch is in close dialogue not just with global automakers but also with innovative companies in other sectors – in Europe, North America, and Asia.

Source: Bosch Press

Eight steps to a more economical car

(Source: Bosch Media)

February marks the start of car buying season – and cost-effective drive systems are an ever more prominent factor in their choices. Modern powertrain technology can cut fuel bills by several hundred euros. Examples include Bosch’s expanded start/ stop function and adaptive cruise control (ACC), which by keeping speeds as constant as possible makes journeys more economical. “Many Bosch innovations help drivers to save fuel – and money – with every mile they drive,” says Stefan Seiberth, president of the Gasoline Systems division of Robert Bosch GmbH. But fuel-efficient functions need not always cost a lot; some technologies – among them the start/stop system – are now standard equipment in many models, while others are popular extras. Let us take the example of automatic transmission: for a long time it was a rule of thumb that automatic transmission increases fuel consumption in real traffic conditions by around a litre per hundred kilometres. But this is not true of Bosch continuously variable transmission (CVT), which actually saves fuel by constantly optimizing engine speed. Here we take a more detailed look at each of the stepping stones to fuel efficiency:

Direct injection – reduces consumption by at least twelve percent
Modern common-rail diesel systems have relied on direct injection for many years. In 2000, this technology revolutionized the image of diesel cars, making them not only economical but also fun to drive. These days, every second new car sold is a diesel. Gasoline direct injection, meanwhile, works with downsizing and turbocharging to reduce fuel consumption and hence CO2 emissions by around twelve percent. At the same time, gasoline cars with direct injection are more powerful and hence also more fun to drive.

Continuously variable transmission – reduces consumption by up to seven percent
Driving up a winding mountain road can be a tiresome task. None of the gears seems to be right. Automatic transmissions make this task much easier, taking over the task of shifting and gear selection. Advanced versions already offer up to nine gears for more efficient mobility. Continuously variable transmissions (CVT) even work without any fixed shifting point. The result is a smooth drive at constant traction and engine speed. CVT especially comes into its own in urban stop-and-go traffic. It can reduce fuel consumption by as much as seven percent, since the engine is constantly kept at its most efficient operating point.

Start/ stop – fuel is no longer used at a red light, reducing consumption by at least five percent
Already, every second new vehicle produced in western Europe is equipped with a start/ stop system. In many models – from low-cost compact cars to high-performance premium sedans – this function comes as standard at no extra charge. In the new European driving cycle (NEDC), start/ stop systems reduce fuel consumption, and thus CO2 emissions, by up to five percent. In the NEDC urban cycle, the saving is as much as eight percent. On congested city streets, especially at peak times, the real savings potential is even higher.

Alternative powertrains – CNG cars can pay off from 7,000 km upwards
Compressed natural gas (CNG) powertrains are now a real alternative even in series-produced vehicles. In Germany, they pay off in passenger cars as soon as annual mileage exceeds 7,000 kilometres. This is also because CNG is as much as 50 percent less expensive than gasoline. Compared with a conventional gasoline engine, generating the same power causes 25 percent less CO2 to be emitted. This is due to the chemical properties of this fuel source. The Bosch system can start in CNG mode even when it is cold, which means that customers can practically always drive on more cheaply priced natural gas. Other systems have to use expensive gasoline to warm up in the starting phase.

Electrification – reduces consumption by up to 60 percent
With the strong-hybrid systems currently made by Bosch, drivers can reduce their fuel consumption in the NEDC by 15 to 25 percent. These days, many automakers offer this kind of hybrid vehicle with just a moderate mark-up; in fact sometimes a hybrid costs the same amount as a comparable diesel car. This means hybrids can pay off even in the midsize “Golf” class. Plug-in hybrids currently cost substantially more. But these can reduce energy costs by up to 90 percent, provided users always remember to charge up at the socket. These hybrids are especially suitable in the midsize segment, as electric SUVs, and as sports cars.

Coasting function – stopping the engine while driving reduces consumption by ten percent
Bosch start/ stop coasting lets even vehicles with an internal-combustion engine travel long distances without generating emissions or noise and with little resistance. This innovative technology stops the engine while driving, which means it consumes no fuel. The low-cost coasting function saves up to ten percent of fuel in real driving conditions. The engine is stopped without the driver noticing whenever the vehicle is able to keep its speed up simply by coasting – for instance on a gentle downhill slope. As soon as the driver depresses the accelerator or the brake, the engine starts up again.

Predictive navigation – deliberate coasting on the approach to built-up areas
Bosch predictive navigation ties map data in with the vehicle’s powertrain, allowing drivers to save up to 15 percent of fuel. The engine management system uses the route preview both in its dynamic calculations of how much power the powertrain needs and in its predictive control of the internal-combustion engine or electric motor. For example, when the navigation software sees that the current two-kilometre downhill stretch of road leads to a built-up area, it can tell the vehicle to enter fuel-efficient coasting mode or to generate more power for the electric drive.

Adaptive cruise control – driving at a constant speed reduces consumption by up to five percent
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) makes drivers’ lives easier by keeping to the specified speed, taking account of vehicles in front, and maintaining a safe distance from them. Radar sensors monitor traffic and adjust the speed accordingly. ACC is now available as an extra even in many compact cars.

By maintaining a constant speed and ensuring the engine always operates at the most efficient speed for every situation, the system is able to save up to five percent of fuel in real driving conditions.

The potential fuel savings outlined above relate in each case to the system described. A total saving of over 100 percent is physically impossible.

Video
Gasoline direct injection

End of 2013

As it is almost the end of 2013 and then end of a long term at school/college for many students and teachers, I thought I would do something a bit different!

What we need is a piece of music that summarizes our feelings at this time of year – and helps us to relax. So, choose one of the following songs or lines from a song that sums up your year in education/training – and let me know why.

Alternatively, suggest a track of your own – there is a prize for the best one!

  • Another one bites the dust (Queen)
  • My way – “I did it…” (Frank Sinatra)
  • One piece at a time – “With the help of an adaptor kit” (Johnny Cash)
  • Sixteen tons – “Another year over and deeper in debt” (Tennessee Ernie Ford)
  • Oops I did it again (Britney Spears)
  • Bat out of Hell (Meatloaf)
  • Yesterday – “All my troubles seemed so far away” (The Beatles)
  • Another brick in the wall – “We don’t need no education” (Pink Floyd)

Tom Denton, December 2013

Under Pressure…

Higher injection pressure saves fuel and also increases performance and torque. “Over the next decade, the vast majority of diesel engines will manage with injection pressures of around 2,000 bar. Although 3,000 bar is not unrealistic, it will be limited to racing cars and high-performance diesel engines.” (Dr. Markus Heyn, President of the Diesel Systems division at Robert Bosch GmbH)

 

Figure 1 Diesel facts. The diesel engine offers the ideal combination of fuel economy and driving pleasure, particularly appreciated by business travellers and commuters.

Common-rail diesel: The CRS3-25 common-rail system features Bosch’s first piezo injector for passenger vehicles that works with an injection pressure of 2,500 bar. With their higher injection pressure, the new piezo models from Bosch are at the technological vanguard. The optimized fuel injection system atomizes the fuel more finely, improving combustion. Lower consumption is just one advantage of this technology.

By way of comparison: The pressure generated by a common-rail system is roughly equivalent to the pressure a 2,000-kilogram rhinoceros would exert standing on a fingernail. The compressed fuel is then finely dispersed at the speed of a supersonic jet.

Enhanced performance: A higher injection pressure generates greater specific power and increases torque. This is why increasing an engine’s injection pressure makes it more powerful: the time available for combustion is extremely limited as soon as an engine is running at full load and high engine speed. This means the fuel must be injected into the engine very quickly at high pressure in order to achieve optimum power yield.

Turbo: The more air there is in the combustion chamber, the higher the injection pressure must be. A large amount of fuel has to be introduced within a short space of time to achieve a combustible air-fuel mixture. Multiple turbocharged engines – particularly bi-turbo and tri-turbo models – benefit from injection pressures in excess of 2,000 bar.

Emissions: A higher injection pressure is a key factor in reducing an engine’s untreated emissions. Indeed, in compact-class vehicles it can often even help to avoid the need for exhaust gas treatment. The greater the injection pressure, the more finely both the injector and injection nozzle can be constructed. This improves atomization and results in a better air-fuel mixture, meaning that optimum combustion is achieved and no soot can form.

Systems competence: A higher injection pressure requires more than just a re-engineered injector. With its comprehensive diesel systems competence, Bosch is able to assemble a finely tuned system comprising not only the control unit, but also the fuel pump, the common-rail system and the injector.

Figure 2 Bosch CRS3-25 with 2,500 bar pressure. A higher injection pressure requires more than just a re-engineered injector. With its comprehensive diesel systems competence, Bosch is able to assemble a finely tuned system comprising not only the control unit, but also the fuel pump, the common-rail system and the injector.

Development of injection pressure – Bosch began with 100 bar

up to 100 bar

Goal at the start of development in 1922

over 100 bar
First series-production inline injection pump
(MAN truck, 1927)

300 bar
VE distributor injection pump (VW Golf D, 1975)

900 bar
Axial-piston pump (Audi 100 TDI, 1989)

1,500 – 1,750 bar
VP 44 radial-piston pump
(Opel Vectra, Audi A6 2.5 TDI, 1996; BMW 320d, 1998)

1,350 bar
Common rail (Alfa-Romeo 156 2.4 JTD, 1997)

2,050 bar
Unit injector system (VW Passat TDI, 1998)

over 2,000 bar
Common rail with piezo injector
(first deployed in the Audi A6 3.0 TDI, 2003/4)

2,500 bar
CRS3-25 common-rail system (available in series-production vehicles as of 2014)

A Classic Silverstone Weekend

How was your weekend? Mine was one of the best so allow me to tell you more. It all started after I was lucky enough to win two Sunday tickets for the Silverstone Classic in an IMI draw. I then immediately rounded up two friends, we bought extra Saturday tickets, booked a hotel for the night and were all set. There was an amazing race card that ranged from saloon cars to former Le Mans cars. Two WW2 Spitfires appeared on a number of occasions showing off both the capability of the aircraft and the skill of their pilots. There was even a great line up of live music set for the Saturday evening that included the Hollies (old readers will remember them!). Sadly, for us three ‘oldies’, there was a weather related incident and we were red-flagged, so the music was not to be…

There were car clubs displaying a huge range of vehicles from the very old to the very new. Stalls were selling everything you could imagine, and there were even rides on Routemaster buses if that was your thing. There were also more Porches than I have ever seen and they even got to drive the track (slowly) on the Sunday. For us keen race fans however, it was all about the action on the track so we settled into grandstand seats at the ‘Village’ and we were ready for a great day of racing – and we were not disappointed. I should mention that this grandstand was not covered – a fact that becomes relevant later. ‘Village’ corner is the first serious turn for cars after starting from the grid on International Straight and going through Abbey and Farm Curve.

Figure 1 Where else could you see a Cooper T45, a Routemaster bus and an Aston Martin DBR4?

The first race we watched on Saturday was the ‘FIA Masters Historic Formula 1′. This included cars such as the Hesketh 308E, Brabham BT49C, Tyrell 012 and lots more amazing F1 classics – it was very nostalgic. The value of some of these cars is enormous but the way some of them are driven you wouldn’t think so – but that is what real racers do. The race was won by Michael Lyons (GBR) in a RAM Williams FW07. He also did the fastest lap in a time of 1:53.861 and then repeated both of these achievements in the re-run of the race on the Sunday.

My favourite race on the Saturday was the Trans-Atlantic Touring Car Trophy (Masters Pre 66 TC), which was the next one up. They were racing in different categories but watching the brave (crazy?) Mini Cooper drivers undercut cars like Ford Mustangs and Ford Lotus Cortinas on the Village corner was great fun. They lost out again on the longer straights but it didn’t matter.

The track action continued with Pre 61 GP cars, Historic Sports cars and then F2 cars versus F5000s; Michael Lyons won on the Saturday and Sunday in both F2 vs. F5000 races too, this time in a Lola 400.

Figure 2 Minis making the most of their cornering ability at Village

After the Super Touring Car Trophy race it was time for the Jim Clark Trophy for HGPCA Pre 66 Grand Prix Cars. The race started cleanly and the cars came round past Village bunched up but somehow they all got through. There were some great overtakes on the corner and then a spot of rain fell. And then a few more drops, so we put our waterproofs on. Then the heavens opened and we could hardly see the cars – the drivers later reported that they couldn’t either – which was a little more worrying. The race was stopped on lap 6 with Jason Minshaw (GBR) in a Brabham BT4 leading. In the meantime we ran for cover but in that area there was little or none available – so for us the race was over, because… well let’s just leave it that our ‘full-wet gear’ kept us dry under the waterproof jacket but not anywhere else! As a result, we gave in and went back to the hotel. Some lucky enough to find cover may have been able to stay and hear the Hollies sing ‘All I Need is the Air that I Breathe’ but there was too much water in the air for us!

Figure 3 FIA Masters Historic Formula One race where a JPS Lotus is just about to get past a Tyrrell

On Sunday the weather was much better and this meant we got our chance to set a PB lap time.

The race card was similar to Saturday so just as exciting. We watched from several different parts of the track this time but ended up back at the Village as, notwithstanding roofing issues, it is a great vantage point. The day started with Historic Formula Ford, then Pre 56 Sports cars and repeats of previous races as run on Saturday. There were two highlights for me on Sunday. The first was the Group C Endurance race, which is effectively made up of previous Le Mans cars. This was won by late entrant French driver Nicolas Minassian in a Jaguar XJR14 (in Silk Cut livery) with a fastest lap time of 1:46.712, which was over seven seconds faster than the next nearest. Watching this car accelerate away from Aintree corner was amazing, and then when the turbos cut in it was even better!

The second highlight was watching Jackie Oliver (former British F1 driver) and Gary Pearson win the RAC Tourist Trophy for Historic Cars (Pre 63 GT) in a car number 60, a yellow Ferrari 250 SWB. There was frustration too in this race for Jakon Holstein in car number 89, a Ginetta G4, as he spun off right in front of us in Copse corner on the second lap. His co-driver Tue Hodal didn’t even get a drive. They had travelled all the way from Denmark for the race so I hope they enjoyed watching the other races as much as we did!

Figure 4 Silverstone marshals as efficient as ever but this frustrated driver had the be towed out

Overall this was an amazing weekend topped off nicely as, after driving home, I watched a recording of Lewis Hamilton winning the 2013 Hungarian GP.

By the way, our personal best (PB) lap was achieved on the Sunday where we set a time of 1:43 (that’s one hour forty three minutes walking round the outside of the track).

More information and full results of all the races are available from: www.silverstoneclassic.com.

Tom Denton

Bosch collision warning system in use in racing at Le Mans

Bosch technology on board the Audi R18 e-tron quattro, Ferrari 458 Italia, GT2 Corvette C6.R, Porsche 911 RSR and Porsche 911 GT3 RSR as well as SRT Viper GTS-R

  • Radar-based collision warning system being used by Corvette Racing
  • Every Le Mans winner since 2000 has used Bosch injection technology

This year, as the 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance race marks its 90th anniversary, there will be Bosch technology on board 21 of the cars in the starting lineup. The cars feature Bosch diesel and gasoline injection systems, hybrid components, engine control units, displays, data loggers, telemetry systems, starters and generators, as well as cable harnesses and sensors.

Radar-based collision avoidance system

In a first for the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Corvette Racing team will be employing a new collision warning system developed by U.S. motor racing equipment supplier Pratt & Miller in collaboration with Bosch Motorsport. One major hazard, particularly in endurance racing, is posed by the speed differential between vehicle classes whenever high-speed LMP (Le Mans Prototype) cars come to lap GTE (Grand Touring Endurance) cars based on series production models. The new system is based on a third-generation Bosch long-range radar sensor (LRR3) fitted to the rear of the vehicle. With an aperture angle of up to 30 degrees, the sensor can detect objects at a distance of 250 meters. It can also track up to 32 objects simultaneously, along with their distance and speed relative to the car. The system combines this information with video footage to show drivers on a cockpit display the vehicles that are behind them, how fast they are approaching, and on which side they are overtaking. “This means drivers always know what’s going on behind them – which is a huge advantage, especially in rainy conditions or night driving,” explains Dr. Klaus Böttcher, vice president of Bosch Motorsport.

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Injection technology for all vehicle classes

Since 2000, Bosch injection technology has guaranteed victory in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. In the last six years, the only vehicles to have won the race overall have been Audi Sport and Peugeot Sport diesel and diesel hybrid cars. In 2013, Bosch is once again a development partner for the Audi R18 e-tron quattro racing hybrid, providing both the diesel injection system and electric drive components.

This year’s classic endurance race will once again see Bosch gasoline direct injection on the starting grid, as it features in the Ferrari 458 Italia cars in the Le Mans GTE classes. Based on the company’s very latest series production technology, the system has been optimized to cope with the challenging conditions of motor racing. The gasoline direct injection system’s electronic portion comprises the MS 5.1 engine control unit and the HPI 5 high-pressure power stage unit, while its hydraulic portion is made up of HDEV 5 high-pressure injection valves and the HDP 5 high-pressure pump with integrated demand control valve. The electrically controlled HDEV 5 high-pressure solenoid valve with multihole technology was tailored to the customer’s precise specifications and the spray pattern was matched to the engine’s specific combustion chamber geometry. Bosch Motorsport supplies the impressively small and light HDP 5 high-pressure fuel pump with a cam profile that is tailored to the engine’s individual characteristics

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Comprehensive motor racing portfolio

Many of the race teams use other Bosch Motorsport technologies in addition to the company’s injection systems. The Ferrari 458 Italia GTC cars feature a tailored version of the Bosch DDU 8 display. Meanwhile Corvette Racing uses engine control units, data loggers, and DDU 7 displays for their GT2 Corvette C6.R racing cars. The SRT Viper GTS-R vehicles are equipped for the first time with engine control units and data loggers from Bosch. All these products are specially developed for motor racing, produced in small series, and carefully tailored to the cars using customer-specific software packages. Bosch Motorsport also produces the telemetry systems that transfer data between the car and the pits during a race to give team engineers a constant overview of the technical status of the car’s systems. For the Porsche 911 RSR as well as Porsche 911 GT3 RSR vehicles, Bosch supplies the engine control units, engine data loggers, starters, and numerous sensors. The majority of the components are based on series production technology that has been adapted to the gruelling requirements of endurance racing.

(Source: Bosch Media)