Digital Headlights

Mercedes Benz has introduced digital HD headlights that constantly monitor the road ahead and adjust instantaneously to illuminate pedestrians, bicyclists, road markings and street signs.

Each headlight has over 1,000,000 LED facets that are controlled individually by data from forward facing cameras that is processed by the computer system. When a person or object in the road ahead is detected, the headlights illuminate it with a beam of light. The light is also directed and focused to eliminate glare that would dazzle other road users or pedestrians. It can also work like other adaptable lighting and so light the roadway around curves.

The lights can act like a head-up display (HUD), but instead of projecting information onto the windscreen, it shows as a digital image of a zebra crossing or a street sign directly onto the pavement using light. The technology is expected to make it into production by 2020.

Bosch electrification technology


Bosch solutions make electrification technology accessible and offer powertrain choices for OEMS

Making its global debut at NAIAS, Bosch’s electric axle drive system (eAxle) makes electrification accessible for automakers through a scalable, modular platform that can bring 5-10 percent cost efficiency as compared to stand-alone components. The eAxle is flexible for multiple platforms and brings together top-of-the-line Bosch powertrain components into one system.

The Thermal Management Station will show how Bosch technology efficiently manages heat flows in electric vehicles and extends range by up to 25 percent, especially in winter driving conditions. The holistic thermal management approach for electric vehicles makes heating in the winter and cooling in the summer cost effective and energy efficient.

Advancements in the electrified powertrain are not limited to battery-powered vehicles. Bosch continues to drive innovation in the internal combustion engine. Direct injection (DI) makes up nearly 50 percent of today’s internal combustion engine market, and its share continues to grow as it enters its third generation of system technology. This new generation can provide significant improvements in efficiency, as well as reduced particulate and gaseous emissions, and improved acoustic performance to decrease overall noise.

Electrification enhanced by collaboration with automated and connected technologies

In addition to powertrain technologies, Bosch will also feature automated and connected technologies including the global debut of a key requirement on the path to fully automated driving. The Electric Power Steering (EPS) system with fail-operational function is a highly redundant feature that enables either a driver or auto pilot system to independently return to a minimal risk condition while maintaining about 50 percent electric steering support in the rare case of a single failure. This technology will enable OEMs to comply with the fall back strategies as proposed in the Federal Automated Vehicles Policy documents from the U.S. Department of Transportation and National Traffic Highway Safety Association.

 

Introduction to SAE J2534 (Pass through)

Introduction

J2534 is a concept that enables flash programming of an emission related ECU regardless of the communication protocol that is used by the ECU. The purpose is that only one tool (hardware device), often referred to as the pass-thru device, should be needed for all kind of ECUs. The connection between the J2534 device and the ECU is a SAE J1962 connector. The J2534 hardware device is to be connected to a standard PC which holds the Application Program Interface (API) from the vehicle manufacturer (Figure 1). The connection between the PC and the J2534 hardware device is up to the manufacturer of the tool, but USB is probably the most common. A J2534 API DLL is provided from the hardware tool developer which handles the communication to the PC. The J2534 document withholds requirements for the hardware and software of a J2534 tool. The communication protocols supported are; ISO9141, ISO14230 (KWP2000), J1850, CAN (ISO11898), ISO15765 and SAE J2610. In 2005 J1939 was also included.

Figure 1. J2534 setup.

Background

Vehicles become more and more complex and almost every function is controlled by an Electronic Control Unit (ECU). The ECUs are often connected onto a communication bus to be able to share data between each other. The most common protocol is CAN, but there are other protocols. There are many Vehicle manufactures and almost as many different communication protocols. Every vehicle manufacturer has a tool for analyzing and reprogramming their product, and this tool is often expensive. This makes it difficult for a car, bus or truck workshop to analyze and repair all kind of vehicles.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (ARB) have been trying to get vehicle manufactures to support common emission-related services for the aftermarket. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) created the J2534 standard, in 2002, to promote the EPA and ARB in their work.

Hardware Requirements

The J2534 hardware works like a gateway between the vehicle ECU and the PC. This pass-thru device translates messages sent from the PC into messages of the protocol being used in the vehicle ECU. J2534 supports the following protocols:

The connection between the PC and the J2534 hardware can freely chosen by the manufacturer of the device i.e. RS-232, USB or maybe a wireless interface. The vehicle manufacturers programming application is not dependant on the hardware connection. Therefore any device can be used for programming any vehicle regardless of the manufacturer.

The connection between the J2534 hardware and the vehicle should be the SAE J1962 connector, also called the OBDII connector. The maximum length of the cable between the J2534 device and the vehicle is 5 meters. If the vehicle manufacturer doesn’t use the J1962 connector, necessary information for connection has to be provided.

The J2534 hardware interface should be able to provide a supply voltage between 5 and 20 volts to the J1962 connector. The power supply should use one of the pins 6, 9, 11, 12, 13 or 14 of the connector and this choice should be selectable in the software. The maximum source current is 200mA and the settling time should be within 1ms.

The J2534 hardware interface should have enough memory to buffer 4Kb of transmit messages and 4Kb of received messages. And the processor must naturally be fast enough to process all messages so that no messages are lost.

Software Requirements

Programming of an emission related ECU using J2534 is done from a PC, preferably a laptop computer, with a Win32 operating system (Windows 95 or later).

Each vehicle manufacturer will have an own API software used for analyzing and programming of their vehicles. If their vehicles only use i.e. ISO 9141, no other protocols have to be supported by the application. It is important that this application conform to the functions in the J2534 API.

This application will have complete information of the ECUs that are supported by the application. This application also includes a user interface where choices can be made depending on the ECU and what action to perform.

A vehicle repair workshop that wants to analyze and re-program vehicles from different manufactures must have an API for each. This API can be downloaded from the internet or installed from a CD or DVD. How this API is provided depend on the manufacturer, but they do charge the customer (repair workshop) ordering it. The price differs a lot between manufacturers, a one year subscription costs between $75 and $2500.

Each manufacturer of a J2534 tool (hardware device) must have a DLL-file which includes functions and routines for communicating with the PC. The DLL-file is then loaded into the vehicle manufacturer’s application. The functions in the J2534 tool are linked to a corresponding function in the application. The DLL-file also includes routines for the connection (RS-232, USB etc.) between the J2534 tool and the PC.

The intention is that every J2534 tool should to be capable of communicating with all protocols supported by the J2534 standard. The application provided by the vehicle manufacturers use commands described in J2534 standard to connect to a hardware tool (of any brand). The connection and initialization gives the hardware tool information of which protocol that is used. Thereafter it is up to the hardware tool to manage the connection to the vehicle with de desired protocol. The PC application will send messages in the earlier determined protocol format to the hardware tool which buffers the messages and transmits the messages in the order they were received.

J2534 Application Programming Interface (API)

The J2534 API consists of a number of functions for communication which must be supported by both hardware tool and vehicle manufacturer application. For the PC application developer this means that all commands and messages must made with the functions defined in the API. See table 1 below.

Function Description
PassThruConnect Establish a connection with a protocol channel.
PassThruDisconnect Terminate a connection with a protocol channel.
PassThruReadMsgs Read message(s) from a protocol channel.
PassThruWriteMsgs Write message(s) to a protocol channel.
PassThruStartPeriodicMsg Start sending a message at a specified time interval on a protocol channel.
PassThruStopPeriodicMsg Stop a periodic message.
PassThruStartMsgFilter Start filtering incoming messages on a protocol channel.
PassThruStopMsgFilter Stops filtering incoming messages on a protocol channel.
PassThruSetProgrammingVoltage Set a programming voltage on a specific pin.
PassThruReadVersion Reads the version information for the DLL and API.
PassThruGetLastError Gets the text description of the last error.
PassThruIoctl General I/O control functions for reading and writing protocol configuration parameters (e.g. initialization, baud rates, programming voltages, etc.).

J2534 function description.

The first command that is sent is the PassThruConnect which establish the connection between the PC application and the J2534 hardware tool. This command includes information about which protocol to use, standard or extended CAN identifier or if ISO15765 is used. The command also includes a channel identification which will be used for all following communication. If the connection was successful, a STATUS_NOERROR value is returned, which indicates that the function has been successfully performed. Before any messages can be sent an initialization has to be made, PassThruIoctl, where parameters like node address, baud rate or protocol specific parameters are set.

All messages sent from the PC application follow the same structure which consists of: protocol type (i.e. J1850, CAN, J9141), receive message status, transmit message flags, received message timestamp (microseconds), data size in bytes, extra data index (start position of extra data in received message i.e. IFR, CRC, checksum), and last but not least an array of data bytes (the received message). It is possible to send CAN messages longer than 8 bytes using ISO15765 commands if this feature was selected upon connection.

Some ECUs sends a lot of messages with short period of time between each message. The filter function, PassThruStartMsgFilter, can be set to either block or pass messages. This will decrease the messages needed to be sent between the hardware tool and the PC. The message is first “ANDed” with a mask which gives the opportunity to compare only some important bits of the identifier. Thereafter the “ANDed” message is compared to a specific pattern.

J2534 API DLL

The J2534 API DLL provides a linkage between the API functions and the hardware tool. Since the PC application should not have to care about which communication protocol is being used between the PC and the hardware tool. Each manufacturer of a hardware tool has a DLL-file with a unique name. This way it is possible for the software application on the PC to distinguish which hardware tool to connect. It is important that the developer of the firmware in the hardware tool follows the API and name the functions exactly as in the J2534 description. Otherwise it will be impossible for the PC application to find the functions in the DLL when performing the linkage.

Source: https://www.kvaser.com/about-can/can-standards/j2534/

Alternative fuel vehicle registrations

Brussels, 28 October 2016 – In the third quarter of 2016, demand for alternative fuel vehicles in the EU grew (+7.0%), totalling 137,423 units.

In the third quarter of 2016, demand for alternative fuel vehicles (AFV) in the EU grew (+7.0%), totalling 137,423 units. Results were diverse among different vehicle categories. On the one hand, registrations of both new electrically chargeable (ECV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) continued their positive momentum, posting double-digit percentage gains during the last quarter (+20.2% and +29.2% respectively). Growth in the ECV segment was particularly supported by plug-in electric cars (+26.4%), which represent more than half of total ECV registrations. On the other hand, demand for cars powered by propane, ethanol or natural gas (NGV) fell by 26.2% to 34,384 units during Q3 2016, following the trend of the first and second quarter. The main reason for this has been a contraction of the Italian market, which accounts for the majority of these vehicles.

full details and source: http://www.acea.be/press-releases/article/alternative-fuel-vehicle-registrations-7.0-in-third-quarter-of-2016

Plans for more charging stations to encourage low emission vehicles.

ULEV charging point.

 

Plans to make electric vehicle chargepoints more widely available and convenient for motorists were put forward by government on October 24 2016.

As part of our ongoing commitment to making transport greener and improving air quality, the Department for Transport is consulting on a series of measures that will make chargepoints more accessible, making it easier for drivers to recharge as demand for low emission vehicles increases. The measures are due to be included in the Modern Transport Bill.

The government has pledged more than £600 million over this parliament to further boost the ultra low emission vehicle market, which is going from strength to strength after the number of new ultra low emission vehicles registered rose by 250% in just 2 years.

Secretary of State for Transport Chris Grayling said:

We are committed to making transport cleaner and giving even more drivers the option of using a low emission vehicle as we strive to improve air quality across the country.

Our ambition is for nearly all new cars and vans to be zero emission by 2040, and we are taking real steps to achieve this in the Modern Transport Bill. We now want to hear the views of businesses and the wider public.

The measures being proposed would give government powers to support the roll-out of charging and hydrogen refuelling infrastructure and improve consumer access to the network by:

  • making information about the location of public charging stations more accessible to the public, potentially via an online database and through mobile phone apps
  • ensuring drivers can access chargepoints without the need for multiple memberships from individual providers
  • giving powers to set common standards for all public chargepoints to ensure electric car owners can recharge anywhere, anytime
  • making consumer pricing information for electricity and hydrogen fuels consistent and transparent
  • supporting ‘smart’ electric vehicle charging that is flexible to grid demands
  • ensuring there is provision of electric chargepoints and hydrogen refuelling points at large fuel retailers and motorway service areas
  • encouraging the roll-out of hydrogen refuelling stations through franchising

There are already more than 11,000 public chargepoints across the UK, and we have Europe’s largest network of rapid chargepoints. The government also offers a range of grants for home and workplace charging.

The Modern Transport Bill, first announced in the Queen’s Speech in May, will outline the role technology and innovation will play in delivering the safe, efficient and user focused transport systems of the future. The bill is due to be laid in Parliament next year.

The Department for Transport is also consulting separately on the proposed transposition of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive; Europe-wide legislation that will further promote the roll-out of charging facilities for vehicles that run on electricity, hydrogen and other clean fuels.

The Modern Transport Bill consultation on measures for low emission vehicle infrastructure will last 4 weeks, closing on 23 November.

(Source: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-gears-up-for-zero-emission-future-with-plans-for-uk-charging-infrastructure)

Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting

Included in the report are interviews with potential adopters of thermoelectric energy harvesters and their views of the impact that the technology could have over their respective industries. Some of the application sectors include:
Waste heat recovery systems in vehicles: A large number of car companies, including Volkswagen, VOLVO, FORD and BMW in collaboration with NASA have been developing thermoelectric waste heat recovery systems in-house, each achieving different types of performance but all of them expecting to lead to improvements of 3-5% in fuel economy while the power generated out of these devices could potentially reach up to 1200W.
Wireless sensor network adoption. Wireless sensors powered by thermogenerators in environments where temperature differentials exist would lead to avoiding issues with battery lifetime and reliability. It would also lead to the ability to move away from wired sensors, which are still the solution of choice when increased reliability of measurement is necessary. Some applications have low enough power demands to operate with small temperature differentials, as small as a few degrees in some cases. These types of developments increase adoption trends.
Consumer applications: In these applications, the type of solution that thermogenerators provide varies: it could be related to saving energy when cooking by utilising thermo-powered cooking sensors, powering mobile phones, watches or other consumer electronics, even body sensing could become more widespread with sensory wristbands, clothing or athletic apparel that monitor vitals such as heart rate, body temperature, etc.
Read more at: http://www.idtechex.com/research/reports/thermoelectric-energy-harvesting-2016-2026-000473.asp

Super truck will turn roads into data highways: Bosch VisionX

Bosch VisionX

  • VisionX concept study provides a glimpse into the future of truck driving
  • Automated driving in platoons will take the strain off drivers, improve economic efficiency, and make driving safer
  • Hybridization and connectivity help improve the overall cost picture

Stuttgart/Hannover – At the 66th IAA Commercial Vehicles trade fair, Bosch will be presenting a 40-ton smart device in the form of a truck tractor – all part of its VisionX concept study on the future of commercial vehicles. “Connected, electrified, and automated – that’s the future of trucks. And that’s what Bosch has encapsulated in VisionX,” says Dr. Markus Heyn, member of the board of management of Robert Bosch GmbH. One of the many technologies envisaged in VisionX is platooning. Besides making life easier for drivers on long journeys, this also represents a significant safety improvement. What’s more, platooning offers a major boost to transport efficiency.

Platooning: automated slipstream driving on the freeway

In the future, multiple assistance systems will combine with automation to make trucks safer and more reliable – almost as if they were on rails. Vehicles will receive all the data they need in real time from the Bosch IoT Cloud, including information on their route, traffic congestion, detours, and the unloading facilities available at their destination. This lets them avoid downtime. What’s more, some aspects of driving will be taken over by the truck itself. For instance, once it reaches the freeway, it joins a platoon – a kind of freight train composed of trucks. In such a platoon, the truck is one of a number of trucks all following a lead vehicle to which they are electronically connected and linked. With the convoy members accelerating, braking, and steering in sync, automated driving reaches a whole new level, increasing safety and taking the strain off drivers. The driver steers the truck until it receives data identifying a suitable convoy. The same applies when the truck leaves the platoon to exit the freeway; at that point, the driver resumes control to complete the journey in manual or partially automated mode.

„Connected and automated trucks are the future, and we are looking to play a major part in their development.“
Dr. Markus Heyn, member of the board of management of Robert Bosch GmbH
Making life easier for drivers, particularly on long-haul routes

“Once the truck joins a convoy on the freeway, drivers can start planning their next route while still remaining in complete control. They can access all key information on the screens in their cab and take the wheel if they need to,” says Heyn. “Connected and automated trucks are the future, and we are looking to play a major part in their development.”

Boosting efficiency through hybrid technology and convoying

Increasing efficiency still further will continue to be a major focus in the future. That’s why the Bosch VisionX concept study takes the diesel engine – which is particularly economical in the world of heavy goods transport – and combines it with electric motors for auxiliary systems such as the hydraulic pump. Trucks of the future will benefit not only from this hybrid technology, but also from the advantages of convoying, which include improved safety thanks to coordinated braking, accelerating, and steering, as well as a significant economic plus. “In a convoy, you can combine the safety gains of automated driving with the efficiency boost that is so crucial to the commercial vehicle sector,” says Heyn. “Slipstream driving enables fuel savings of up to 10 percent. That’s a strong argument in the commercial vehicle industry.”

VisionX as part of the connected logistics chain

“Perfectly connected like a smart device, the truck of the future will become a key component of international logistics processes,” states Heyn. Bosch’s new systems will make drivers’ lives easier in many ways – from accepting shipping documents and loading the truck, to carrying out automated maneuvers once the truck arrives at its destination. By accessing the Bosch IoT Cloud, hauliers and customers will be able to track where the truck and its cargo are located at any point in time. What’s more, drivers will be able to find and reserve parking spaces along the route, making the journey less stressful.

Innovation is in the details, too

Although a truck’s fuel consumption plays a key role in the total cost of ownership, other factors also play a major part, such as the losses incurred when trucks stand idle. The Bosch VisionX concept study shows how much scope there is for optimizing this situation in the future, too. For example, predictive maintenance can monitor the technical condition of a truck in real time and inform the freight forwarder of any maintenance work or repairs that are due. This is the best way to plan breaks in a truck’s schedule, thus keeping downtime to a minimum and further boosting transport efficiency.

Source: Bosch Media

New Tech Promises to Boost Electric Vehicle Efficiency, Range

Researchers at North Carolina State University have developed a new type of inverter device with greater efficiency in a smaller, lighter package – which should improve the fuel-efficiency and range of hybrid and electric vehicles.

Electric and hybrid vehicles rely on inverters to ensure that enough electricity is conveyed from the battery to the motor during vehicle operation. Conventional inverters rely on components made of the semiconductor material silicon.

husain-inverter-2016-header-992x558

Now researchers at the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution and Management (FREEDM) Systems Center at NC State have developed an inverter using off-the-shelf components made of the wide-bandgap semiconductor material silicon carbide (SiC) – with promising results.

“Our silicon carbide prototype inverter can transfer 99 percent of energy to the motor, which is about two percent higher than the best silicon-based inverters under normal conditions,” says Iqbal Husain, ABB Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at NC State and director of the FREEDM Center.

“Equally important, the silicon carbide inverters can be smaller and lighter than their silicon counterparts, further improving the range of electric vehicles,” says Husain, who co-authored two papers related to the work. “And new advances we’ve made in inverter components should allow us to make the inverters even smaller still.”

Range is an important issue because so-called “range anxiety” is a major factor limiting public acceptance of electric vehicles. People are afraid they won’t be able to travel very far or that they’ll get stuck on the side of the road.

The new SiC-based inverter is able to convey 12.1 kilowatts of power per liter (kW/L) – close to the U.S. Department of Energy’s goal of developing inverters that can achieve 13.4 kW/L by 2020. By way of comparison, a 2010 electric vehicle could achieve only 4.1 kW/L.

“Conventional, silicon-based inverters have likely improved since 2010, but they’re still nowhere near 12.1 kW/L,” Husain says.

The power density of new SiC materials allows engineers to make the inverters – and their components, such as capacitors and inductors – smaller and lighter.

“But, frankly, we are pretty sure that we can improve further on the energy density that we’ve shown with this prototype,” Husain says.

That’s because the new inverter prototype was made using off-the-shelf SiC components – and FREEDM researchers have recently made new, ultra-high density SiC power components that they expect will allow them to get closer to DOE’s 13.4 kW/L target once it’s incorporated into next generation inverters.

What’s more, the design of the new power component is more effective at dissipating heat than previous versions. This could allow the creation of air-cooled inverters, eliminating the need for bulky (and heavy) liquid cooling systems.

“We predict that we’ll be able to make an air-cooled inverter up to 35 kW using the new module, for use in motorcycles, hybrid vehicles and scooters,” Husain says. “And it will boost energy density even when used with liquid cooling systems in more powerful vehicles.”

The current SiC inverter prototype was designed to go up to 55 kW – the sort of power you’d see in a hybrid vehicle. The researchers are now in the process of scaling it up to 100 kW – akin to what you’d see in a fully electric vehicle – using off-the-shelf components. And they’re also in the process of developing inverters that make use of the new, ultra-high density SiC power component that they developed on-site.

A paper on the new inverter, “Design Methodology for a Planarized High Power Density EV/HEV Traction Drive using SiC Power Modules,” will be presented at the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), being held Sept. 18-22 in Milwaukee. Lead author of the paper is Dhrubo Rahman, a Ph.D. student at NC State. The paper was co-authored by Adam Morgan, Yang Xu and Rui Gao, who are Ph.D. students at NC State; Wensong Yu and Douglas Hopkins, research professors in NC State’s Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; and Husain.

A paper on the new, ultra-high density SiC power component, “Development of an Ultra-high Density Power Chip on Bus Module,” will also be presented at ECCE. Lead author of the paper is Yang Xu. The paper was co-authored by Yu, Husain and Hopkins, as well as by Harvey West, a research professor in NC State’s Edward P. Fitts Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering.

The research was done with the support of the PowerAmerica Institute, a public-private research initiative housed at NC State and funded by DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy under award number DE-EE0006521. FREEDM, a National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center, is aimed at facilitating the development and implementation of new renewable electric-energy technologies.

Source: https://news.ncsu.edu/2016/09/inverters-boost-ev-range-2016/

Local clouds for greater road safety

Buildings, hedges, or a truck – these objects can quickly obscure drivers’ view, especially at intersections. If a road user is driving carelessly, it is often a matter of milliseconds that decide whether there is a collision or not. However, vehicle connectivity can greatly reduce the number of resulting accidents by promptly providing information that is outside the driver’s and the vehicle’s field of vision. Together with Nokia and Deutsche Telekom, Bosch is developing local cloud solutions for the automotive industry and working on the complete integration of vehicles via the cellular network all the way through to the Bosch IoT Cloud. The companies are employing Mobile Edge Computing (MEC), a cellular network technology that uses a local cloud to aggregate and process latency-critical information and distribute it to drivers. Unlike most clouds, this local cloud is situated directly at a mobile base station near the roadside and not on the internet.

1-bbm-boxberg

Dr. Dirk Hoheisel, member of the board of management at Robert Bosch GmbH said: “Local clouds are ideally suited to fast vehicle-to-vehicle communication for hazard warnings and for cooperative and coordinated driving maneuvers,” says Dr. Dirk Hoheisel, the responsible board of management member at Robert Bosch GmbH, emphatically. “We at Nokia believe that connected cars and autonomous driving will be a key part of a connected society. We are excited to work with Bosch and Deutsche Telekom to make this a reality using Mobile Edge Computing technology and thereby improving road safety.” adds Adolfo Masini, Head of IoT Connectivity, Nokia.

local-cloud

By 2020, the companies want to jointly drive forward the expansion of cellular technology and corresponding connected driving functions as part of the introduction of the 5G network, with the particular aim of enabling higher levels of automated driving. To this end, vehicles must be capable of communicating both with each other and via a server – in either a central or a local cloud, depending on requirements. The development partnership between Bosch, Nokia, and Deutsche Telekom involved a project team implementing driver assistance functions such as the intersection assistant and the electronic brake light and using them to validate communication via a local cloud in the Bosch proving ground in Boxberg as against a central cloud. For the intersection assistant to work, vehicles must regularly send their location and movement data to the server. This data is compared with that of nearby vehicles in light of the rules governing right of way. If there is danger of an accident occurring, a warning message is displayed in the vehicle that does not have the right of way. Outside of cities in particular, where vehicles travel at higher speeds, there is a definite speed advantage if data takes the short route via the local cloud. Compared to solutions that exchange information via a central cloud, local cloud approaches are at least three times faster, and they have much lower variances in the case of vehicle-to-vehicle latencies under 20 milliseconds. In some situations, this can make the difference as to whether the information reaches the car on time and the driver or the safety function can react quickly enough.

Water injection

Did you know that even advanced gasoline engines waste roughly a fifth of their fuel? Especially at high engine speeds, some of the gasoline is used for cooling instead of for propulsion. With its new water injection, Bosch shows that it does not have to be that way. Particularly when accelerating quickly or driving on the freeway, the injection of additional water makes it possible to reduce fuel consumption by up to 13 percent. “With our water injection, we show that the combustion engine still has some tricks up its sleeve,” says Dr. Rolf Bulander, chairman of the Bosch Mobility Solutions business sector and member of the board of management of Robert Bosch GmbH. The fuel economy offered by this Bosch technology comes especially to the fore in three- and four-cylinder downsized engines: in other words, in precisely the kind of engines to be found under the hood of any average midsize car.

bosch-wassereinspritzung

Extra boost for the turbocharged engine

But it is not only in the area of fuel economy that the Bosch innovation comes into play. It can make cars more powerful as well. “Water injection can deliver an extra kick in any turbocharged engine,” says Stefan Seiberth, president of the Gasoline Systems division at Bosch. Earlier ignition angles mean that the engine is operated even more efficiently. On this basis, engineers can coax additional power out of the engine, even in powerful sports cars.

The basis of this innovative engine technology is a simple fact: an engine must not be allowed to overheat. To stop this happening, additional fuel is injected into nearly every gasoline engine on today’s roads. This fuel evaporates, cooling parts of the engine block. With water injection, Bosch engineers have exploited this physical principle. Before the fuel ignites, a fine mist of water is injected into the intake duct. Water’s high heat of vaporization means that it provides effective cooling.

infographic-water_injection-2

This is also the reason only a small additional volume of water is needed: for every one hundred kilometres driven, only a few hundred millilitres are necessary. As a result, the compact water tank that supplies the injection system with distilled water only has to be refilled every few thousand kilometres at the most. And if the tank should run empty, there is nothing to worry about: the engine will still run smoothly – albeit without the higher torque and lower consumption provided by water injection.

Additional questions and answers

Is this technology already in production?

The BMW M4 GTS is the first production vehicle to feature an innovative and ground-breaking water injection system. In the vehicle’s turbocharged six-cylinder engine, it offers improved performance and consumption even at full load. Bosch supplies water injection parts for the BMW M4 GTS.

How high is fuel consumption in the driving cycle?

In the future consumption test (WLTC), water injection makes it possible to save up to 4 percent fuel. In real driving conditions, even more is possible: here, fuel consumption can be reduced by up to 13 percent when accelerating quickly or driving on the freeway.

Doesn’t water injection cause the engine to rust?

No. No water is left in the combustion chamber. The water evaporates before combustion happens in the engine. All the water is expelled into the environ-ment, together with the exhaust.

How is water refilled?

Water injection only requires a small amount of water to be kept on board. On average, it only has to be refilled every 3,000 kilometers. The separate water tank has to be filled with distilled water.

Can the water in the tank freeze?

When the engine is stopped, the water flows back into its tank, where it may freeze. Following engine restart, the water thaws again.

Is there such a thing as direct water injection?

Bosch uses a port injection system, since it has clear technical advantages and costs less. This makes water injection suitable for large-scale production, as well as for many vehicle segments.
Links: Bosch water injection: Online special with videos and animated films:  http://www.bosch-mobility-solutions.com/en/powertrain-electrified-mobility/water-injection/

(Source: Bosch Media)